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1) be,am,are,is,was,were,been,being
2) have,has,had,having
3) do,does,did


1) be作助动词,主要用来构成:
a. 各种进行时态:
I’m seeing a friend off. 我在给一位朋友送行。
We’re trying to get in touch with her. 我们正在设法和她取得联系。
She’s working as an air-hostess. 她在当空姐。
He was groping in the dark, so to speak. 他可说还在黑暗中摸索。
What were you doing when I called? 我打电话时你在干什么?
Come on time. We’ll be expecting you. 准时来,我们会等着你。
What have you been doing all these years? 这些年来你一直在干什么?
b. 各种被动语态:
Smoking is not allowed in this building. 本大楼内禁止吸烟。
You are requested to give a performance. 请你表演一个节目。
I’m being shown round the city. 有人正带我在城里逛。
He was penalized for a foul. 他因犯规而受罚。
Hundreds of soldiers were killed or wounded in the battle. 这次战役伤亡了数百士兵。
The trip has been cancelled. 这次远足取消了。
c. 各种被动形式:
He hates being interrupted. 他不愿受人打扰。
She was afraid of being seen by her father. 她怕被她父亲看见。
He was there being trained as an astronaut. 他在那里被培训为宇航员。
Such problems have to be handled with care. 这类问题得谨慎处理。
He asked to be sent to work in the northwest. 他请求派他去西北工作。
2) be用作其他类动词:
a. 用作系动词:
He is (was) an atheist. 他是个无神论者。
Remember your father’s directions and be a good girl. 记住你爸爸的的话做个好姑娘。
Be always on your guard. (你)要时刻保持警惕。
He had (has) been in Beijing for five years. 他在北京待了五年。
She wasn’t in when I called. 我打电话时她不在家。
b. 作不及物动词(表示发生某事或存在某种情况):
“How long ago was it?” “Oh, not many minutes.” “这是多久以前的事?” “啊,就几分钟前的。”
The party will be in a week. 晚会一周后举行。
When is the wedding to be? 婚礼什么时候举行?
When a thing has to be, it had better be quickly. 凡事赶早不赶晚。
What will be, will be. (谚)该发生的事总要发生。
I’m sorry, sir, the meeting’s already been. 对不起,先生,会已经开过了。
Could it be that they had no place to go? 是不是他们没地方可去?
3) be +不定式结构:
a. 打算做某事或计划好要做的事(意思接近于be going to):
I am (was) to play Juliet. 我将扮演朱丽叶。
I am to edit a volume of Irish Fairy Tales. 我打算编一本爱尔兰童话。
The President is to make a statement tomorrow. 总统明天将发表声明。
The expedition is (was) to start in a week’s time. 考察队将于一周后起程。
She was to have got married last month. 她本来准备上月结婚的。
I was to have seen him yesterday, but he didn’t come. 我本来昨天见到他的,但他没来。
The mayor was to have laid the foundation stone but he was taken ill last night. 市长原本要来主持奠基典礼的,但昨晚病了。
b. 该做某事(接近于should,must,ought to,have to等):
Suppose he comes here, what am I to tell him? 假如他到这里来,我该对他讲什么?
You are not to smoke in the room. 你不得在这房间里抽烟。
You are not to open the box. 你不能打开这个箱子。
c. 能做某事(接近于can,may):
How am I to pay such a debt? 这笔债我怎么还得起?
Not a sound was to be heard. 听不到一丁点声音。
We Chinese people are not to be bullied. 我们中国人是不好欺侮的。
d. 将来必然要发生的事:
The worst is still to come. 更糟糕的事还在后头。
They said goodbye, little knowing they were never to meet again. 他们互相告别,不知道彼此将再也不会见面。
This I was only to learn later. 这一点我只是以后才知道。


1) have作助动词,主要用来构成:
a. 完成时态和完成进行时态:
I’ve seen this film before. 我以前看过这部电影。
She’s been in Hong Kong for six months. 她在香港待了六个月。
They had already told me the news. 这消息他们已告诉我了。
She’ll have arrived in Shen Zhen by 6 o’clock. 六点之前她将已到达深圳。
What has she been doing since? 此后她一直在干什么?
Have you been waiting long? 你等好久了吗?
I was afraid he would have gone to bed by then. 我担心那时他会已经上床睡觉了。
He ought to have arrived by now. 现在他应当已经到了。
I’m pleased to have made your acquaintance. 认识了你我很高兴。
I regretted having been so rude to him. 我懊悔对他那样粗鲁无礼。
Don’t be angry with me for not having written. 没给你写信请别生我的气。
Having lived there for ten years, she was reluctant to leave. 她在那里住了十年,因而不愿意离开。
Not having got an answer, he was rather worried. 由于没得到回音,他很着急。
2) have作及物动词的用法:
a. 表示所有关系:
Bad news has wings. (谚)坏消息传得快。
Mr. Green had living with him a nephew and a niece. 格林先生有一个侄儿和一个侄女和他住在一起。
The house has five rooms. 这屋子有五个房间。
I have an impression that he’s been improving. 我有感觉他在改进。
She has blue eyes. 她的眼睛是蓝颜色。
He has a good temper. 他脾气很好。
She had a happy childhood. 她童年很幸福。
If his car is not out, he’ll let us have it. 如果他的车在家,他会借给我们的。
b. 和许多名词连用表示动作:
have a long walk 作长时间散步                    have a chat(with) (和…)聊天
have a look at    瞧(某物)                     have a drink of water 喝一杯水
have a wash     洗一洗                           have a swim 游一会儿泳
have a rest      休息一会儿                      have a read 看一会儿书
have a good lie  好好躺一会儿                    have a quarrel (with) (和…)吵一架
have a win in a competition 比赛获胜             have a smoke 抽一支烟
have a fight 打了一架                            have a bath 洗个澡
have a dream 做了一个梦                          have a love (of) 很喜欢(某物)
have respect (for) 很尊敬(某人)                have a wish (to) 愿意(做某事)
have a dislike (of) 不喜欢                       have a good laugh 畅笑了一阵子
have a try 试一试                                have a fear (of) 害怕(某物)
have a conversation (with) (和…)谈话          have a discussion 讨论
have an X-ray 去透视                             have a scene 真吵
c. 表示“吃”、“喝”、“患(病)”等:
They are having fish for supper. 他们晚饭吃鱼。
They have some coffee. 那么就喝点咖啡。
Will you have a cigarette? 要不要抽根烟?
Everybody here has the influenza. 这里人人都患流感。
She has the measles. 她出麻疹了。
Do you often have colds? 你常常感冒吗?
Which injection did you have? 你打的什么针?
My sister has just had a child. 我姐姐刚生了孩子。
I never had any education. 我从未上过学。
a. have + 名(代)词+(不带to的不定式)——让某人做某事:
I’m going to have her live with me. 我准备让她和我一起住。
I’ll be proud to have you read it. 我将自豪地让你读它。
I won’t have him cheat me. 我不能让他欺骗我。
b. have +名(代)词+过去分词——让(别人)做某事或遭遇某事:
She’s having her eyes tested. 她在请人验光。
He’s having them repaired. 他正请人修理它们。
Pa’s had his hands burned. 爸的手给烫了。
The pilot had his plane hijacked. 飞行员的飞机遭到劫持。
c. have +名(代)词+现在分词——让某人做某事,让某事发生:
He tried to have her talking, but no use. 他设法让她讲话,但没有用。
She soon had us all laughing. 她很快让我们都笑了起来。
We can’t have that sort of thing happening. 我们不能允许这种事发生。
d. have (got) to 不得不:
I had to walk very fast to overtake you. 我得走很快才能赶上你。
One of them will have to go. 他们中间得去一人。
These last two days I have had to take a rest. 最近这两天我不得不休息。
We may have to cancel the plan. 我们可能不得不取消这项计划。
It’ll have to be done all over again. 这事将不得不重新做一遍。
I’ve got to be off now. 我现在得走了。
We’ve got to be careful about these things. 这些事我们得小心。
e. have got (=have):
She hasn’t got a bank account. 她没有银行户头。
I’ve got a fellow coming to see me tomorrow. 明天有个人来看我。
I’ve got one or two things to see to. 我有一两件事要办理。
What’s that got to do with you? 那和你有什么关系?
It was acute pneumonia that she had got. 她患的是急性肺炎。


1) do作助动词的用法:
a. 构成疑问句和否定句:
Does he work here? 他在这里工作吗?
I didn’t see him at the meeting. 开会时我没见到他。
He lives here, doesn’t he? 他在这里住,对吧?
I don’t care what she thinks. 她怎么想我不在意。
Didn’t she sing well? 她唱得真好!
b. 加在动词前表示强调:
I did see her at the party. 晚会上我的确见过她。
Do come with us. 务请和我们一块儿去。
I do hope you’ll come to China again. 我真希望你将再次来中国。
Please! Do be quiet a moment! 求求你们!请安静一会儿!
She does sing well!她确实唱得好!
c. 用来表示刚提到过的动作,以避免重复:
Tom talks too much, ——Yes, he does. 汤姆话太多。——是的。
He lives here but I don’t. 他住在这里而我不是。
She doesn’t drive but I do. 她不会开车,但我会。
He didn’t see you, did he? 他没看到你,对吧?
Do you smoke? ——No, I don’t. 你抽烟吗?——不抽。
2) do作及物动词的用法:
a. 和一个名(代)词连用,表示“做(某事)”:
What are you doing? 你在干什么?
Has he done his homework? 他作业做完了吗?
I’m doing some research on the subject. 我在就这问题做些研究。
I have a number of things to do this morning. 今天早上我有很多事要做。
They want to do business with us. 他们想和我们做生意。
She did her lessons in the afternoon. 她下午做功课。
What’s to be done? 该怎么办?
Easier said than done. (谚)说易行难。
b. 和动名词连用:
He does some writing in his spare time. 他有空时写些东西。
She did lots of acting when she was at university. 她在大学时演过很多戏。
She is doing the ironing (cooking). 她在烫衣服(做饭)。
I did some reading before I went to bed. 睡觉前我看了一会儿书。
Maria did most of the talking. 大部分时间都是玛丽亚在说话。
You should do more thinking. 你应作更多的思考。
We can do some sightseeing here. 在这里我们可以观光游览。
She’s gone out to do some shopping. 她出去买东西了。
c. 和一些表示物件的名词连用,表示“梳”、“刷”等:
Can you do the rooms now? 你现在能打扫房间吗?
When is he coming to do the windows? 你现在能打扫房间吗?
Go and do your hair. 去梳梳头。
Have you done your teeth? 你刷牙了吗?
We did two concerts last week. 上星期我们听了两场音乐会。
He did 200 miles a day. 他一天开(车)两百英里。
We did the journey in six hours. 我们跑这一趟花了六小时。
You should have seen him do Hamlet. 你真该看看他扮演哈姆雷特。
3) do作不及物动词用法:
a. 表示工作、学习等方面的情况:
How do you do? 你好!
He’s doing well at school. 他在学校学习良好。
He did poorly in the examination. 他考得很差。
She is doing nicely. 她过得很好。
The patient is doing well. 病人康复情况良好。
Everything in the garden is doing well. 花园里的花木长势都很好。
b. 表示“行”、“够了”、“合适”、“可以”等:
I’ve got some muslin here, will it do? 我有一些细棉纱,能用吗?
Will ₤5 do? 五英镑够吗?
The place would do for a gymnasium. 这地方可以作体育馆。
That jacket won’t do for skiing. 这件夹克不适合滑雪。
This hotel won’t do. 这家旅馆不行。
That piece of material would do to make a dress for you. 这块料子适合你做件连衣裙。


1) 用于将来时态(各种人称后都可以用):
I’ll give you a definite answer tomorrow. 明天我将给你个明确回答。
We will never again be separated. 我们再也不会被分开。
Will you be taking your leave in South Africa? 你准备在南非度假吗?
By this time next year she will have taken her university degree. 明年这时她将已获得大学学位。
It looks as if he won’t be in time for the train. 看来他好像赶不上火车了。
2) 用于疑问句表示请求:
Will you tell her that I’m Mrs. Pater? 你可否告诉她我是佩特夫人?
Will you have a little soup? 你要不要喝点汤?
Bring me the paper, will you? 把报纸拿给我好吗?
Will you please sit down, everybody? 请大家坐好。
Won’t you take off your overcoat? 你要不要把大衣脱掉?
3) 用于各个人称,表示:
a. 愿意,肯:
I will have nothing to do with this matter. 我不愿和这事扯上关系。
I meant to reason with you, but you won’t reason. 我是想和你讲道理,但你不听劝。
She won’t so much as look at David. 她连看大卫一眼都不肯。
Go where you will. 你想去哪里就去哪里。
If you will allow me, I will see you home. 如你允许,我愿意送你回家。
b. 决心,承诺:
I won’t have anything said against her. 我绝不让谁说她的坏话。
I won’t give her a divorce. 我不会同意和她离婚。
I won’t let her down in any way. 我绝不会做任何对不起她的事。
I won’t do it any more, I promise you. 我答应你我再也不会这样做。
c. 习惯,倾向:
She will sit there for hours, waiting for her son to come home. 她常常在那里一坐几个小时等候儿子回家。
Some animals will not mate in captivity. 有些动物关起来就不交配。
These things will happen. 这样的事总是要发生的。
Boys will be boys. 男孩终究是男孩。
d. 命令、叮嘱:
You will report to the headquarters right today. 你今天就去总部报到。
You will not go out today: you’ll stay in and work. 你今天不准出去,你得留在家里干活。
You will stay here till you are relieved. 放你走你才能走。
No one will leave the examination room before 12 o’clock. 十二点前谁也不得离开考场。
e. 表示猜测:
The man with the umbrella will be the Prime Minister. 打雨伞的人想必是首相。
I knew his father, Professional Pile——you’ll have heard of him. 我认识他父亲派尔教授,想必你听说过他的。
That will be the postman at the door. 门口想必是邮差。

would 的用法

1) 作助动词的用法:
a. 用来构成过去将来时态(各人称后均可以用):
He knew he would be late. 他知道他要迟到了。
I said I’d be glad to see him. 我说我会很高兴见到他。
I thought she would be looking after you. 我想她会照顾你的。
I guessed he’d have told you everything. 我猜他会把一切都告诉你了。
From her trip to Pairs, she would return on Monday morning. 巴黎之行后,她会于星期一早上回来。
He asked if I would go in. 他问我是否要进去。
b. 用来婉转地提出请问题、看法等:
Would you kindly send me his address? 劳驾可否把他的地址寄给我?
Would you help us, please?劳驾可否帮帮我?
Let’s fix a day. Would Saturday night suit you? 咱们来定个日子,星期六晚上合适吗?
How do you think she would feel? 你想她会有什么感受?
I’m sure he wouldn’t mind your going. 我肯定他不会介意你去。
I think that would be the most convenient time for us. 我想这对我们是最合适的时间。
I’d go there with you. 我愿意和你一道去。
2) 用于虚拟语气:
a. 用于虚拟条件句:
If we were men, we would be doing something now. 如果我是男人,我们现在会采取一些行动。
He would be delighted if you went to see him. 你要是去看他,他会很高兴的。
I would have done more, if I’d had the time. 如果我有时间我就会做得更多些。
If I had seen the advertisement, I would have applied for the job. 如果我看到了广告,我早就申请这份工作了。
They would never have met if she hadn’t gone to Emma’s party. 要是她没有去参加爱玛的晚会,他们就决不会相遇的。
b. 用于含蓄条件句:
She’d be stupid not to accept. 她不接受是愚蠢的。
Hurry up! It would be a pity to miss the beginning of the play. 赶快,要是看不到戏的开头就太遗憾了。
In the old days she would have argued. 要是在过去,她早就争论上了。
I would have taken a firm stand. (如果是我)我会采取坚定的立场。
Legalizing this drug would have disastrous consequences. 使这种毒品(售卖)合法化会产生灾难性的后果。
c. 用于其他情况:
I wish the sun would come out. 但愿太阳会出来。
She burned the letters so that her husband would never read them. 她把信烧掉,这样她丈夫就永远不会看见了。
He wishes (that) she would leave him. 他希望她会离开他。
She worried for fear that her child would be hurt. 她很担心唯恐孩子受到伤害。
She just wouldn’t do what I asked her. 她就是不肯答应我的要求。
She would not go to the dentist even though she was in considerable pain. 尽管牙疼得厉害,她仍不愿意去看牙医。
He would never enter this hateful house again. 他再也不想走进这间讨厌的房子了。
They had to do that whether they would or not. 不管愿不愿意,他们都得这样做。
She would never permit anything of that sort. 她绝不会允许出这种事。
I should be obliged if you wouldn’t George me. 如果你能不叫我乔治我会很感激。
I would be glad if you would give me an account of it. 如果你愿意谈谈这事的经过,我会很高兴。
When he was young he would often walk in these woods. 他年轻时常常在这些树林里散步。
When my parents were away, my grandmother would look after me. 我父母不在家时,总是我奶奶照顾我。
He’d always be the first to offer to help. 他总是第一个主动帮忙的人。
Now and then a blackbird would call. 画眉不时会鸣叫两声。
My car wouldn’t start this morning. 我的车今天早上开不起来了。
I’d say she’s about 40. 我猜她有四十岁左右。
I would imagine the journey will take about an hour. 我猜测这段路程可能需要一个钟头。
The person you mentioned would be her father. 你提到的那个人想必是她父亲。
I thought you would have come back. 我想你可能已回来了。
Where would you like to sit? 你想坐在哪儿?
I’d be only too glad to help. 我很高兴帮忙。
I’d hate to leave you. 我真不愿意离开你们。
I’d love a coffee. 我想喝杯咖啡。
I’d prefer to go by plane. 我愿坐飞机去。
I’d rather have the blue one. 我愿意要蓝的。
I’d sooner go home. 我宁愿回家去。


1) 作助动词的用法:
a. 主要用于第一人称,构成疑问句以征求对方意见:
What time shall I come? 我什么时候来?
Where shall we go for our holiday? 我们到哪里去度假?
Let’s look at it again, shall we? 我们在瞧瞧,好吗?
Shall I turn on the light? 要不要我把灯打开?
b. 在英国也可用于肯定句和否定句中(现在用will的人可能更多些),构成将来时态:
I shall be very happy to see him again. 我会很高兴再次见到他。
We shan’t be arriving until ten o’clock. 我们要到十点才到。
I shall have been working here for ten years by the end of this year. 到今年年底我在这里就已工作十年了。
I shall often be coming to Pisa. 我会常到比萨来。
We shall have finished with this tomorrow. 明天这事就会干完。
2) 在英国可用在比较文气的语言中,表示“规定”、“许诺”、“命令”等:
Candidates shall remain in their seats until all the papers have been collected. 收卷前考生须留在各自座位上。(规定)
In the rules, it says that a player shall be sent off for using bad language. 有明确规定球员出言不逊应罚出场。(规定)
If you really want a pony, you shall have one. 如果你确实想要小马,我就给你一匹。
I shall write to you at the end of the month. 月底我会给你写信。(许诺)
She shall not stay under my roof. 她不得留在我家中。(命令)


1) 作助动词的用法:
I should (would) be most grateful if you could do it for me. 如果你能帮我做这事我会非常感激。
I said I should be glad to help. 我说我将乐于帮忙。
I never thought I should (would) see you again. 我以为我再也见不到你了。
We hoped we should have confidence in each other again. 我们希望我们重新彼此信任。
2) 作情态动词——表示“应该(当)”(接近于ought to):
She considered how she should answer. 她考虑应当怎样作答。
The police should do something about it. 警方对此应想些办法。
He really shouldn’t work so hard. 他的确不应当工作这样劳累。
Should I try again? 我是不是该再试一次?
We should have checked the time before we left. 我们本应该先核对一下时间再动身的。
You shouldn’t have trusted him so readily. 你不应当这样轻易信赖他。
You should have been helping Tom. 你应当在帮助汤姆。
You shouldn’t be reading a novel. You should be reading a textbook. 此刻你不应当在看小说,而应当在看课本。
3) 用在某些句子中使口气显得更婉转(仅用于第一人称):
I should like to phone my lawyer. 我想给我的律师打电话。
We should be grateful for your help. 我们将很感谢你的帮助。
There are a lot of things I should have liked to ask you. 有好多事我本想问你的。
I should have preferred him to do it in a different way. 我倒是愿意他以别种方式来做此事。
I should be glad to talk to you. 我将高兴和你谈谈。
She advised that we should keep the gate locked. 她劝我们把大门锁上。
They agreed the roof should be repaired. 他们同意房顶要维修一下。
He arranged that I should go abroad. 他安排我出国。
They asked that relief work should be given priority. 他们要求优先处理救济事务。
He commanded that the army should advance. 他命令部队向前推进。
She determined that he should study music. 她决定他学音乐。
He ordered that the goods should be sent by air. 他命令将货物空运。
They stipulated that the best materials should be used. 他们规定要使用最好的材料。
The chairman proposed that they should stop the meeting. 主席提议休会。
I suggested that she should wear a jacket. 我建议她穿一件夹克。
It is advisable that everyone should have a map. 每人都带一张地图是明智的。
It is better that he should hear from you. 他从你这儿知道更好一些。
It is essential that he should be prepared for this. 让他对此有准备至关重要。
It is only right that she should have a share. 她分得一份是对的。
It is his suggestion that I should come round to you. 我来找你是他的建议。
It was necessary that he should work hard. 他用功是必要的。
It’s queer that you should be so different from Jane. 你和简竟然这样不同真是奇怪。
It does seem silly that I should have to learn this. 我竟然不得不学这个确实显得很傻。
It strikes me as odd that he should ask you about it. 我感到奇怪他竟向你问及此事。
I find it quite astonishing that he should be so rude to you. 我感到惊讶他对你竟然如此粗鲁无礼。
I can’t think why she should have done such a thing. 我不明白她为什么竟然做出这样的事。
I don’t know why you should think I did it. 我不明白你怎么竟然认为是我干的。
Why should he have asked you such a question? 他怎么竟然会问你这样的问题?
How should I know? 我怎么会知道?
a. (在英国)用在主句中的第一人称后(这时用would的人较多):
If I was asked to work on Sunday I should resign. 如果要我星期六工作我就辞职。
I should have helped her if she had asked me. 要是她提出来,我本来会帮她的。
I shouldn’t have laughed if I had thought you were serious. 如果我认为你是认真的,我就不会笑了。
We shouldn’t have succeeded without your help. 要不是你帮忙,我们本不会成功。
b. 用在条件从句中(主语谓语可用虚拟语气、祈使语气或陈述语气):
I should be most happy to go with you if I should not be in the way. 如果不妨碍什么,我会很高兴和你们一道去。
I could persuade her to make room for you should it be necessary. 如果有必要,我可以说服她给你腾地方。
If the pain should return, take another of these pills. 万一还疼,就再吃一片这个药。
If you should be passing, do come and see us. 万一你从这儿过,务请来看看我们。
Should I be free tomorrow, I will come. 如果明天有空我就来。
I don’t think it will happen, but if it should, what shall we do? 我想这事不会发生,但万一发生,我们怎么办?
8)用在某些由in case,so that,lest等引导的状语从句中:
Here is a shilling in the case you should need it. 给你一先令以备需要。
I’ll keep a seat for you in case you should change your mind. 我给你留个座位以备你改变主意。
She hid it under the pillow so that he should not see it. 她把它藏在枕头下面以防他看到。
He wore a mask so that no one should recognize him. 他戴了一个面罩以免有人认出他。
He was terrified lest he should slip on the icy rocks. 他很害怕,唯恐在结冰的岩石上滑倒。
She began to be worried lest he should have met with some accident. 她开始着急,担心他会出事。
It’s 4:30. They should be in New York by now. 现在是四点半,他们应该到达纽约了。
He should have arrived by now. 他现在相必已经到了。
I should imagine it will take about three hours. 我推测这大约需要三个小时。
I should say she’s over forty. 我猜她有四十多岁了。










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