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附加疑问句

概念
  附加疑问句由陈述句加简短附加问句构成,用以要求对方证实所述之事。附加疑问句主要有两种:一类是反意的附加疑问句,另一类是非反意附加疑问句。
反意疑问句
  1 英语中,反意疑问句是由陈述句和附在其后的附加疑问句组成。其中附加疑问句是对陈述句所说的事实或观点提出疑问,起证实作用,一般用于证实说话者所说的事实或观点。   2、反意疑问句用法说明
注意事项
  反意疑问句前后两部分谓语应是,“肯定陈述+否定疑问”或“否定陈述+肯定疑问”。   简略问句如果是否定式,not应与be,do,will等系动词、助动词、情态动词缩写。   简略问句的主语不用名词,应用人称代词。   当说话者的目的不在疑问,而是为了加强语气时,用降调。   当说话者的目的在疑问,则用升调。   陈述部分含“too...to”时,是否定句(too后接表感情的形容词时例外)。
用法

  1)陈述部分的主语是I,疑问部分要用 aren't I.   I'm as tall as your sister,aren't I?   (我和你姐姐一样高,对吗?)   2) 陈述部分的谓语是wish,疑问部分要用may +主语。   I wish to have a word with you, may I?   (我希望可以和你说话,可以吗?)   3)陈述部分用 no, nothing, nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, little等否定含义的词时,疑问部分用肯定含义。   The Swede made no answer, did he / she?   Some plants never blown (开花), do they ?   4) 含有ought to 的反意疑问句,陈述部分是肯定的,疑问部分用shouldn't / oughtn't +主语。正式文体用should/ought +主语+not形式。   He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? / shouldn't he?   5) 陈述部分有have to +v. (had to + v.),疑问部分常用don't +主语(didn't +主语)。   We have to get there at eight tomorrow, don't we?   6) 陈述部分的谓语是used to 时,疑问部分用didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语。   He used to take pictures there, didn't he? / usedn't he?   7) 陈述部分有had better + v. 疑问句部分用hadn't you?   You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you?   8)陈述部分有would rather +v.,疑问部分多用 wouldn't +主语。   He would rather read it ten times than recite it, wouldn't he?   9)陈述部分有You'd like to +v. 疑问部分用wouldn't +主语。   You'd like to go with me, wouldn't you?   10) 陈述部分有must 的疑问句,疑问部分根据实际情况而定。   A.must表示“应该”,其疑问部分用mustn't(不应该),如:   You must work hard next term, mustn't you ? 下学期你应该努力学习,对吗?   B.must表示“必须”,其疑问部分用needn't(不必),如:   They must finish the work today, needn’t they? 他们今天必须要完成这项工作,是吗?   C.陈述部分含情态动词mustn't,表示禁止时,疑问部分就可以用must或may,如:   You mustn’t stop your car here, must you? (may we?)你不能把车停在这地方,知道吗?   D.must表示推测 ,其疑问部分必须与must 后面的主要动词相呼应。如:   ①对现在动作或存在的情况的推测 :   You must know the answer to the exercise, don't you? 你一定知道这项练习的答案,是不是?   That must be your bed, isn't it? 那一定是你的床,是吗?   ②对过去发生的动作或存在的情况的推测:

   a 表示肯定推测   (一)句中陈述部分没有表示过去的时间状语,这时疑问部分中的动词就用   现在完成时。(haven’t / hasn’t + 主语)   You must have told her about it, haven’t you? 你一定把这事告诉她了,是吗?   (二)陈述部分有表示过去的时间状语,疑问部分的动词就用   一般过去时。(didn’t + 主语)   She must have read the novel last week, didn’t she? 她上星期一定读了这本小说了,是吗?

   特别值得一提是:著名学者周海中教授在《英语附加疑问句的一个问题》一文中指出:陈述部分的must不管是用来表示对现在的情况进行推测还是用来表示对过去的情况进行推测,附加问句都可以mustn't 。该文举了若干个实例,从而改变了人们对这一用法的看法。

   b 表示否定推测   表示推测时,否定式通常不是must not,而是can't (cannot).如:   He can't have been to your home; he doesn't know your address, does he?   他不可能去过你家;他不知道你的地址,是不是?   11)感叹句中,疑问部分用be +主语。   What colours, aren't they?   What a smell, isn't it?   12)陈述部分由neither… nor, either… or 连接的并列主语时,疑问部分根据其实际逻辑意义而定。   Neither you nor I am engineer, are we?   13) 陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定代词everything, that, nothing, this, 疑问部分主语用it。   Everything is ready, isn't it?   14) 陈述部分为主语从句或并列复合句?   a. 并列复合句疑问部分,谓语动词根据邻近从句的谓语而定。   Mr. Smith had been to Beijing for several times, he should have been in China now, shouldn't he?   b. 带有定语从句,宾语从句的主从复合句,疑问部分谓语根据主句的谓语而定:   He is not the man who gave us a talk, is he?   He said he wanted to visit Japan, didn't he?   c. 上述部分主句谓语是think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine等引导的宾语从句,疑问部分与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句。   I don't think he is bright, is he?   We believe she can do it better, can't she?   但此时主语必须是第一人称   如果不是则不能否定从句   如 He thought they were wrong,didn't he?   而不能说weren't they?   15) 陈述部分主语是不定代词everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one等,疑问部分常用复数they,有时也用单数he.   Everyone knows the answer, don't they? (does he?)   Nobody knows about it, do they? (does he?)   16)带情态动词dare或need的反意疑问句,疑问部分常用 need (dare ) +主语。   We need not do it again, need we ?   He dare not say so, dare you/he?   当dare, need 为实义动词时,疑问部分用助动词do + 主语。   She doesn't dare to go home alone, does she?   17)省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句,疑问部分用will you。   Don't do that again, will you?   Go with me, will you / won't you ?   注意: Let's 开头的祈使句,后用shall we(或用shan't we) ?   Let us 开头的祈使句,后用will you(或won't you)?   Let's go and listen to the music, shall we(或用shan't we)?   Let us wait for you in the reading-room, will you (或won't you)?   18) 陈述部分是"there be"结构的,疑问部分用there省略主语代词。   There is something wrong with your watch, isn't there?   There will not be any trouble, will there?   19) 否定前缀不能视为否定词,其反意疑问句仍用否定形式。   It is impossible, isn't it?   He is not unkind to his classmates, is he?   20)当主句是由so引起的一个句子,而且译为“这么说来”时,疑问部分的谓语形式(肯定或否定)应与主句保持一致。   So you have seen the film, have you?   So he has not been to Beijing ,hasn't he?   『补:Let's和Let us的区别』   ◇1.Let's是Let us的缩写。包括说话人和听话人双方在内,含有催促、建议或请对方一起行动的意思。在听话人表示赞同建议时可只用Let's.如:   ---Shall we go by train?   ---Yes,.   ◇2.当请求对方允许自己(第一人称复数)做某事时,要用Let us,这里的 us 不包括听话对方在内,不能缩写为Let's.   如两个同学对老师说:   Please let us remove the bookshelf for you.   让我俩给你移动一下书架。   ◇3.两者在构成附加疑问句时,方法不同。如:   Let's go to see the film,shall we ?   咱们去看电影,好吗?   Let us go to see the film,will you?   让我们去看电影,好吗?   编辑本段|回到顶部快速记忆表 陈述部分的谓语 疑问部分    I aren't I    Wish may +主语    no,nothing,nobody,never,    few, seldom, hardly, 肯定含义   rarely, little等否定

常用词组

  ought to(肯定的) shouldn't/ oughtn't +主语   have to+v.(had to+v.) don't +主语(didn't +主语)   used to didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语   had better + v. hadn't you    would rather + v. wouldn't +主语    you'd like to + v. wouldn't +主语    must 根据实际情况而定    感叹句中 be +主语    Neither…nor,   either…or 连接的根 据其实际逻辑意义而定   并列主语    指示代词或不定代词   everything,that, 主语用it   nothing,this    并列复合句 谓语根据邻近从句的谓语而定   定语从句,宾语从句的   主从复合句 根据主句的谓语而定    think,believe,expect,   suppose,imagine等引导 与宾语从句相对应的从句    everybody,anyone,   somebody,nobody,no one 复数they, 单数he    情态动词dare或need need (dare ) +主语   dare, need 为实义动词 do +主语    省去主语的祈使句 will you/won't you/can't you?   Let's 开头的祈使句 Shall we?   Let us 开头的祈使句 Will you?    there be 相应的谓语动词+there(省略主语代词)    否定前缀不能视为否定词 仍用否定形式    must表"推测" 根据其推测的情况来确定反意疑问句
反意疑问句的回答

  对反意疑问句的回答,无论问题的提法如何,如果事实是肯定的,就用yes,事实是否定的,就要用no。要特别注意陈述句部分是否定结构,反意疑问句部分用肯定式提问时,回答yes或no与汉语正好相反。这种省略回答的yes要译成“不”,no要译成“是”。   例 ---He likes playing football, doesn’t he? 他喜欢踢足球,不是吗?   ---Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t. ,是 他喜欢。/ 不 他不喜欢。   ---His sister didn’t attend the meeting, did she? 他妹妹没有参加会议,是吗?   ---Yes, she did. / No, she didn’t. 不,她参加了。/ 是的,她没参加   若be动词后是never//few//little,后面的动词仍用肯定形式   反意疑问句是英文中常见的一种句型,它提出情况或看法,询问对方同意与否,被广泛应用于英语口语。反意疑问句通常由两部分构成:前一部分用陈述句的形式(statement),后一部分是一个附着在前一部分上的简短问句(也叫tag question)。所附简短问句中的主语和谓语与陈述句的保持一致,而且两部分的时态要一致。反意疑问句有四种类型:(1)肯定陈述+否定简短问句;(2)否定陈述+肯定简短问句;(3)肯定陈述+肯定简短问句;(4)否定陈述+否定简短问句。其中,前两种运用最为广泛。除此之外,反意疑问句还有“祈使句+简短问句”的形式,这种用法通常用于减弱祈使语气。如: Carry this parcel for me, can you? 给我拿一下包,好吗?   反意疑问句的构成有以下几点特殊情况须注意:   1.当陈述句的主语是everyone, everybody, someone, somebody时,简短问句中的主语通常用they。如果陈述句的主语是非人称的复合词,如everything, something, anything, 则简短问句中相应的人称代词是单数的中性词it。例如:   Somebody borrowed my coat yesterday, didn’t they?   Nobody came, did they?   Everyone thinks they’re the center of the universe, don’t they?   Nothing can stop us now, can it?   2.当陈述句是表示存在的句子时,简短问句用there 作形式主语。例如:   There isn’t a book on the table, is there?   There’s something wrong, isn’t there?   There won’t be any trouble, will there?   3.如果陈述句中包含有如下的否定或半否定词, 如seldom, hardly, never, rarely,little, few, nowhere, nothing,则简短问句通常用肯定形式。但如果陈述句中仅包含有否定前缀,则简短问句中用否定形式。例如:   He was unsuccessful, wasn’t he?   The rules are invariable, aren’t they?   He seldom pays more attention to his pronunciation, does he?   He hardly knows anything about computer, does he?   Tom has little knowledge of how to spend money, does he?   4.陈述句中是I am时,简短问句则用aren’t I。例如:   I am an excellent English speaker, aren’t I?   I am late, aren’t I ?   5.陈述句中是非限定人称代词one时,正式文体中,简短问句的主语为one,而非正式文体中用you。例如:   One must be honest, mustn’t one?   6.含有宾语从句的主从复合句的反意疑问句中,简短问句一般反映主句中主、谓之间的关系。但如果主句是I think, I suppose, I believe, I suspect, I imagine 等时,则简短问句反映的是that从句中主语与谓语之间的关系。例如:   They agreed that the United States shouldn’t make a war on Iraq, didn’t they?   I suppose (that) he is serious, isn’t he?   注意:否定词移位的情况。如:   I don’t suppose (that) he is serious, is he?   7.如果陈述句的谓语动词是have (当 “拥有”讲时), 简短问句可用have形式或用do形式。例如:   You have a nice house, haven’t/don’t you?   但如果陈述句是否定形式时,简短问句中动词的选择则由陈述句中的动词形式而定。例如:   He hasn’t a house of his own, has he?   He doesn’t have a house of his own, does he?   如果陈述句中的动词 have 表示“经历,遭受,得到,吃”的意思时,则简短问句中的动词用 do的形式。例如:   You often have headaches, don’t you?   8.当陈述句的动词是ought to时,英国英语中简短问句用ought,而美国英语中则用should。   9.陈述句中的动词是used to时,简短问句可用used 的形式或did的形式。例如:   The Smiths used to live in the countryside, usedn’t / didn’t they?   He didn’t use/used to tell lies, did he?   10.陈述句中动词为needn’t时,简短问句通常用 need。例如:   You needn’t do it if you don’t want to, need you?   You needn’t have told him the news, need you?   11.陈述句中must后动词的类属和时态不同,反意疑问句也不同。例如:   The food must be good, isn’t it?   You must have read the book last month, didn't you?   You must see the doctor, needn’t you?(must表必要性,故用needn’t)   You mustn’t do that again, must you?(must表示“不可以”)   12.当陈述部分是一祈使句时,简短问句则通常为 won’t you, would you, can you, can’t you, could you等,使语气婉转、客气。如果陈述部分的祈使句中含有第   一人称时,如Let’s do something, 则简短问句为 shall we?例如:   Do sit down, won’t you?   Shut up, can you?   在否定的祈使句后, 只能用will you。例如:   Don’t forget, will you?   13.当遇到宾语从句时候.一般反主句.但是以 I think I believe. Isuppose ....开头的反从句   
中文中的反意疑问句
  简称 反问句,是句式中的一种。表面上看,是疑问句;实际上说话者是在强调某种肯定或否定的答案,也就是明知故问。这类句式常和“难道”、“怎么”等词联接。通常答案就在句子当中.   比如:   1. "难道我会不知道?"----说话者是在强调自己是知道的。   2. "(难道)我有这么笨吗?"----说话者在强调自己并不笨。这里“难道”一词也可以省略。   3."数学真的这么难么?"----说话者在强调数学不难.   4."那怎么是一样的呢?"----说话者在强调那是不一样的。   5.我们难道要浪费时间吗?——强调要珍惜时间   6.你们怎能破坏环境呢? ——强调要保护环境   7.不是应该这样的吗?——强调应该这样   反问句结尾时正常用问号,而有些特殊的句子也可一用感叹号。   如:“得把他们抱过来,同死人待在一起怎么行!”意思就是说同死人待在一起不行,表示极度强调。   同英文中不同,回答这类问题往往是按照个人习惯   如:“数学真的这么难么?”   答:“不是,数学很简单。”   问:“那怎么是一样的呢?”   答:“是啊,那明明不一样。”
回答
  反意疑问句前后两部分谓语应是,“肯定陈述+否定疑问”或“否定陈述+肯定疑问反意疑问句的回答 对反意疑问句的回答,无论问题的提法如何,如果事实是肯定的,就用yes,事实是否定的,就要用no。要特别注意陈述句部分是否定结构,反意疑问句部分用肯定式提问时,回答yes或no与汉语正好相反。这种省略回答的yes要译成“不”,no要译成“是”。His sister didn’t attend the meeting, did she? 他妹妹没有参加会议,是吗? ---Yes, she did. / No, she didn’t. 不,她参加了。/ 是的,她没参加 He is a student, isn't he? (他是个学生,不是吗?) Yes, he is.(是的,他是学生) No, he isn't.(不是,他不是学生) He doesn't like playing football, does he?(他不喜欢踢球,是吗?) Yes, he does.(不是,他喜欢踢球) No, he doesn't.(是的,他不喜欢踢球) I am not a teacher, am I? (我不是一名老师,是吗? Yes, I am.(不是, 我是一名老师) No, I am not.(是的,我不是一名老师)。 英语18种特殊的反 反意疑问句前后两部分谓语应是,“肯定陈述+否定疑问”或“否定陈述+肯定疑问反意疑问句的回答 对反意疑问句的回答,无论问题的提法如何,如果事实是肯定的,就用yes,事实是否定的,就要用no。要特别注意陈述句部分是否定结构,反意疑问句部分用肯定式提问时,回答yes或no与汉语正好相反。这种省略回答的yes要译成“不”,no要译成“是”。 His sister didn’t attend the meeting, did she? 他妹妹没有参加会议,是吗? ---Yes, she did. / No, she didn’t. 不,她参加了。/ 是的,她没参加 He is a student, isn't he? (他是个学生,不是吗?) Yes, he is.(是的,他是学生) No, he isn't.(不是,他不是学生) He doesn't like playing football, does he?(他不喜欢踢球,是吗?) Yes, he does.(不是,他喜欢踢球) No, he doesn't.(是的,他不喜欢踢球) I am not a teacher, am I? (我不是一名老师,是吗? Yes, I am.(不是, 我是一名老师) No, I am not.(是的,我不是一名老师)。
练习题
  Not everyone likes everyone else,__does he____? 只要将主句的语气倒过来就可以了 You have your house painted once a year,__do not you______?,Let's ask him his opinion about it_____do we_____?To get there on tume is impossible,___is not it_____?The news that they failed their driving test discouraged him,__did not it_____?He has been fired and will have to_____B____ over charge of his office tomorrow.A.take 接管 B.hand 移交 C.get 克服 D.go 复习   1.祈使句。祈使句后一般加上will you或won't you构成反意疑问句,用will you 多表示“请求”,用won't you 多表示提醒对方注意。例如:   Look at the blackboard, will you/ won't you?看黑板,好吗?   Let引导的祈使句有两种情况:   1)Let's...,后的反意疑问句用shall we或shan't we。例如:   Let's go home, shall we/ shan't we? 回家吧,好吗?   还可以用may I来表示征求对方的同意或许可。   2)Let us/me...后的反意疑问句用will you或won't you。例如:   Let me have a try, will you/won't you? 让我试一试,行吗?   2.感叹句。感叹句后加反意疑问句时,其反意疑问句需用be的一般现在时态的否定形式。例如:   What fine weather, isn't it? 多好的天气啊,是吧?   3. 当陈述部分谓语动词是need, dare, used to,且这些词被用作实义动词时,其反意疑问句需用do的适当形式。例如:   He needs help, doesn't he?他需要帮助,是吗?   4.陈述部分主、谓语是I am...时,反意疑问句用aren't I 或ain't I ,而不是am not I (可用am I not)。例如:   I'm working now, ain't I? 我在工作,是吗?   5.陈述部分的主语是everything, nothing, anything或something 时,反意疑问句的主语应用代词it。例如:   Something is wrong with my radio, isn't it? 我的收音机出毛病了,是吧?   6.陈述部分的主语是 everybody, everyone, anybody, anyone, somebody, someone, nobody, no one, none, neither 时, 其反意疑问句的主语需用复数代词they。例如:   Everyone is here, aren't they? 大家都到了,是吗?   No one knows about it, do they? 没有人知道这件事,对吗?   7.陈述部分的主语是指示代词this或that时,反意疑问句的主语用it,当陈述部分的主语是指示代词these或those时,其反意疑问句的主语用they。例如:   This is a plane, isn't it? 这是一架飞机,是吗?   These are grapes,aren't they? 这些是葡萄,是吗?   8.陈述部分的主语是不定代词one时,反意疑问句的主语可以用one,也可用you(美式英语用he)。例如:   One should be ready to help others, shouldn't one? 每个人都应该乐于助人,是吧?   9.当陈述部分含有以下这些含有否定意义的词时:few, little, seldom,hardly, never, not, no, no one, nobody, nothing, none, neither等,其反意疑问句需用肯定结构。例如:   He is never late for school, is he? 他上学从不迟到,是吗?   10.当陈述部分所含的否定词是通过加前缀或后缀构成的,其后的反意疑问句依然用否定结构。例如:   It is unfair, isn't it? 这不公平,是吧?   11.含有否定含义的词在陈述部分作动词的宾语时,其反意疑问句用肯定结构,也可以用否定结构。例如:   You got nothing from him, did you? 你从他那儿什么也没得到,是吗?   12.当陈述部分主语是从句、不定式(短语)、动词-ing形式时,反意疑问句的主语应该用it。例如:   What you need is more important, isn't it?你需要的东西更重要,是吧?   13.当陈述部分含I think (believe, suppose...)that... 结构时,其反意疑问句须与从句的主、谓语保持一致,注意主句的主语必须是第一人称。例如:   I don't think he will come, will he? 我认为他不会来,对吗?   14.have(has)不是表示“有”的意思,并在句中做谓语时,其反意疑问句的助动词要用do, does, did。例如:   They had a meeting just now,didn't they? 他们刚才开了个会,是吗?   15.陈述部分有have to 时,其反意疑问句要用助动词的否定形式。例如:   You have to water the vegetables every day, don't you?你每天都要浇菜,对吧?   16.陈述部分是there be句型时,其反意疑问句中要用there。例如:   There was a hospital here, wasn't there? 过去这儿有家医院,是吗?   17.陈述部分有had better时,反意疑问句中要用hadn't。例如:   We had better go to school at once, hadn't we? 我们现在最好马上去上学,好吗?   18.当陈述部分含有情态动词must时,我们便要分析一下must的含义。如果must 作“一定;要;必须”讲,反意疑问句须用mustn't或needn't;而当must作推测意义“一定是;必定”讲时,反意疑问句则需根据must后的动词原形选用相应的形式。例如:   He must work hard at physics, mustn't he? 他必须努力学物理,是吧?   Tom must be at home,isn't he? 汤姆一定在家,是吧?
如何回答反意疑问句
  在回答的时候, 如果是前肯后否的句子,思维和中国人相同;如果是前否后肯的句子,思维正好同中国人相反:   He is a student, isn't he? (他是个学生,不是吗?)   Yes, he is.(是的,他是学生)   No, he isn't.(不是,他不是学生)   He doesn't like playing football, does he?(他不喜欢踢球,是吗?)   Yes, he does.(不是,他喜欢踢球)   No, he doesn't.(是的,他不喜欢踢球)   I am not a teacher, am I? (我不是一名老师,是吗?)   Yes, I am.(不是, 我是一名老师。)   No, I am not.(是的,我不是一名老师。)   5。最后就是,在回答的时候,不允许 Yes,.....not.或者 No,+ 肯定的。
非反意的附加疑问句

  非反意的附加疑问句的陈述部分要么同是肯定的,要么同是否定的。这类的附加疑问句有时带有感情色彩,表示惊奇,愤怒,讽刺 ,不服气等。eg:you call this a day ’s work,do you ?你这就叫一天的活儿,是吗?

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