It’s easy to blame the decline of conversation on the pace of modern life and on the vague changes taking place in our ever-increasing world.(相当于the changes which take place...)
There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently giving what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic.(相当于which gave...)
How many of us attending, say, a meeting that is irrelevant to us would be interested in the discussion?
(相当于How many of us who will attend...)
Good news was sometimes released prematurely, with the British recapture of the port announced half a day before the defenders actually surrendered. (相当于…recapture of the port which had been announced…)
Just as the value of a telephone network increases with each new phone added to the system, so does the value of a computer system increase with each program that turns out. (相当于…each new phone which is added to…)
The author gave a detailed description based on his personal observation of nature.
(相当于…description which was based on…)
deceased, departed, elapsed, faded, fallen, gone, grown-up, retired, returned, risen, set, vanished, much-travelled, newly arrived, recently come。如：
an escaped prisoner一个逃犯 a retired worker一位退休工人
a faded curtain一个褪了色的窗帘 a newly arrived student一个新来的学生
Having completed one task, we started on another one. (complete先于start之前发生)
He wasn’t asked to take on the chairmanship of the society, being considered insufficiently popular with all members.
There seemed little hope that the explorer, having been deserted in the tropical forest, would find his way through it.
Helen borrowed my dictionary the other day saying that she would return it soon.
Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely lost to the outside world.
(4)表示结果，置于句尾，用分词的一般式。如：The city found itself in a crisis situation last summer when the air conditioning on dozens of the new buses broke down, them unusable.
(5)表示补充说明(同位)，置于句尾，用分词的一般式。如：The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports, each making one major point in contrast with the other.
Ford tried dividing the labor, each worker assigned a separate task.
All flights having been canceled because of the snowstorm, we decided to take the train.
Darkness setting in, the young couple lingered on merrymaking.