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主动语态与被动语态编辑本段回目录

主动语态和被动语态
主语和谓语有时是主动关系,即主语是动作的执行者,如:
Everybody respects him. 人人都尊敬他。
有时也可以是被动关系,即主语是动作的承受者,如:
He is respected by everybody. 他受到大家的尊敬。
第一句的谓语为主动语态,第二句的谓语为被动语态。就句子来说,前一句是主动结构,后一句为被动结构。这里也可看出被动结构句子中的主语是主动结构句子中的宾语。
这类句子有些有by引导的状语,如:
The supermarket is run by a young lady. 这家超市是一位年轻的女士经营的。
The play was written by Cao Yu. 这个戏是曹禺写的。
但有些却没有,如:
She was born in Hunan Province. 她出生于湖南省。
They were given a warm welcome. 他们受到热烈的欢迎。
从这些句子中也可以看出,被动词态由“be+过去分词”构成,时态由be表现出来。
哪些动词可用于被动语态
1) 一般说来及物动词可用于被动语态,因为及物动词有宾语,把宾语变为主语,句子即可改为被动结构:
主动结构                                                被动结构
Someone broke the window.                               The window was broken.
Judia painted a picture.                                The picture was painted by Judia.
We keep the butter in the fridge.                       The butter is kept in the fridge.
They killed two brids last night.                       Two brids were killed last night.
2) 不及物动词若与介词结合可构成成语动词,这时就可以有宾语,因而也就可以用于被动结构:
主动结构                                                被动结构
We are looking into the case.                            The case is being looked into.
He operated on her yesterday.                            She was operated on yesterday.
They discriminated against him.                          He was discriminated against.
They have broken into the house.                         His house has been broken into.
3) 由情态动词等构成的谓语也可用于被动结构:
主动结构                                                被动结构
We can’t do it in a day.                                It can’t be done in a day.
You must do it right now.                                It must be done right now.
We should revise the plan.                               The plan should be revised.
She has to finish the work tonight.                      The work has to be finished tonight.
4) 非谓语动词,由于不是谓语,不能改为被动语态,但可改为被动形式(Passive Forms):
主动形式                                                被动形式
She asked to see the manager.                           She asked to be given a job.
I have nothing to do.                                   There is nothing to be done.
She hated living alone.                                 She hated being treated like that.
I heard someone singing next door.                      I heard the song sung in Italian.
哪些结果结构可变为被动结构
除了“主+谓+宾”这种结构可变为被动结构外,还有下面结构可变为被动结构:
1) 主语+谓语+宾语+不定式:
主动结构                                                被动结构
We told the boy to go to bed.                           The boy was told to go to bed.
They asked her to sing a song.                          She was asked to sing a song.
They made him work long hours.                          He was made to work long hours.
We saw him enter the house.                             He was seen to enter the house.
2) 主语+谓语+宾语+名词作补语:
主动结构                                                被动结构
They made him their leader.                             He was made their leader.
We called her Big Sister.                               She was called Big Sister.
We must keep this a secret.                             This must be kept a secret.
They elected him chairman.                              He was elected chairman.
3) 主语+谓语+宾语+形容词等作补语:
主动结构                                                被动结构
She painted the walls yellow.                           The walls were painted yellow.
He dyed his hair red.                                   His hair was dyed red.
They set her free.                                      She was set free.
We found them in high spirits.                          They were found in high spirits.
4) 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语(+其他部分):
主动结构                                                被动结构
They gave me something to eat.                           I was given something to eat.
She taught me an English song.                           I was taught an English song.
He told us some stories.                                 We were told some stories.
They awarded her a special prize.                        She was awarded a special prize.
5) 主语+谓语+从句:
主动结构                                                被动结构
They said that she was a saint.                         It was said that she was a saint.
They believe that he has magic power.                   It’s believed that he has magic power.
They reported that he had resigned.                     It was reported that he had resigned.
They announced that the contest was to be postponed.    It was announced that the contest was to be postponed.

各个时态的被动语态编辑本段回目录

一般时态的被动语态
1) 一般现在时的被动语态——am,are,或is+过去分词:
I am given a lot of work to do. 他们给了我大量工作。
You are invited to give us a talk in English. 邀请您给我们作一个英语讲座。
The three words are pronounced in the same way. 这三个单词发音相同。
The boy is called Little Tiger. 这男孩叫小虎。
2) 一般过去时的被动语态——was或were+过去分词:
She was brought up by her aunt. 她是她姑姑带大的。
The book was written by Dickens. 这本书是狄更斯写的。
Where were you educated? 你在哪里受的教育?
They were given a warm send-off at the airport. 他们在机场受到热烈欢送。
3) 一般将来时的被动语态——will (shall) be+过去分词:
When will the project be completed? 这项工程什么时候完工?
The spacecraft will be launched tomorrow. 太空船将于明天发射。
The result will not be announced until 6 o’clock. 结果六点钟才会宣布。
Shall I be allowed to go with you? 会允许我和你们一道去吗?
4) 一般过去将来时的被动语态——would be+过去分词:
I didn’t expect that I would be asked to speak. 我没料到会被要求发言。
We were afraid we wouldn’t be admitted. 我们担心会不让我们进去。
We were sure that he would be punished. 我们肯定他会受到惩罚。
She little thought she would be invited. 她没想到会受到邀请。
进行时态的被动语态
1) 现在进行时的被动语态——am,are或is + being+过去分词:
I’m being troubled by his behavior. 我正在为他的行为苦恼。
The road is being repaired. 道路正在维修。
The case is being investigated. 这案子正在调查之中。
They are being interrogated by the police. 他们正在被警方盘问。
2) 过去进行时的被动语态——was或were +being +过去分词:
A new supersonic aircraft was being designed. 一种新的超音速飞机正在设计之中。
He was being looked after by his sister. 他正由他妹妹照顾着。
These ancient buildings were being renovated. 这些古建筑正在翻修。
The troops were being inspected by the president. 部队正受总统检阅。
完成时态的被动语态
1) 现在完成时的被动语态——has或have +been +过去分词:
My brother has been sent to work in Tibet. 我弟弟被派去西藏工作了。
Have they been notified about it? 这事通知他们了吗?
They’ve been warned not to swim there. 他们被告诫不要在那里游泳。
She hasn’t been told about it yet. 还没告诉她这件事。
2) 过去完成时的被动语态——had +been +过去分词:
He told me that the factory had been closed down. 他告诉我这家工厂已经倒闭。
I heard she had already been sent to hospital. 我听说她已被送进医院。
We were glad that she had been awarded a gold medal. 我们很高兴她被授予一枚金牌。
I couldn’t go to the party because I hadn’t been invited. 我不能去参加晚会因为我没被邀请。
其他时态或没有被动语态,或极少用被动语态。

各种结构的被动形式编辑本段回目录

带情态动词的被动结构
1) 由can,could构成的被动结构:
This pump can also be operated by hand. 这种泵也可手动操作。
This can’t be done in a short time. 这不是短期内能完成的。
How could she be persuaded to stay? 怎么能劝说她留下?
He thought that expenditure could be further reduced. 他认为开支还可进一步削减。
△ can,could后的不定式也可用完成形式:
This can’t have been done by a human being. 这不可能是人做的事。
Such expenses could have been avoided. 这些开支本来是可以避免的。
2) 由may,might构成的被动结构:
The road may be further widened. 这条路还可再拓宽一点。
An art school may (might) be opened next year. 明年可能开办一所艺术学校。
You might be asked to speak at the meeting. 可能会请你在会上发言。
She might be sent to work abroad. 她可能被派往国外工作。
△ may,might后的不定式也可用完成形式:
He may have been given wrong information. 可能给了他错误的情报。
They might have been put in the wrong place. 它们可能被放错了地方。
3) 由must,mustn’t构成的被动结构:
This must be considered carefully. 这事必须仔细考虑。
Glassware must be handled with care. 玻璃器皿必须轻拿轻放。
All these factors mustn’t be neglected. 所有这些因素都不能忽略。
Pupils mustn’t be given too much homework. 学生作业不能留得太多。
△ must,mustn’t后的不定式也可用完成形式:
The house must have been broken into at night. 这房子准是夜里有人强行闯入。
This pagoda must have been built in the Ming Dynasty. 这座宝塔一定是明朝建的。
4) 由should构成的被动语态:
You should be praised for what you’ve done. 你的行为应予表扬。
Should she be told about it? 这事应该告诉她吗?
This should be kept a secret. 这事应当保密。
Our precious time shouldn’t be wasted that way. 我们宝贵的时间不应当这样浪费。
△ should后面的不定式也可用完成形式:
Such people shouldn’t have been invited. 这样的人本来就不该邀请。
They should have been well treated. 他们本应受到良好的待遇。
5) needn’t也可用于被动结构:
She needn’t be told about it. 这事无需告诉她。
The second point needn’t be (needn’t have been) mentioned. 第二点无需提及。
在肯定句及疑问句中要加to:
They need to be cautioned. 他们需要提醒。
Does this need to be mentioned? 这一点需要提吗?
一些不定式结构的被动形式
1) ought to的被动结构:
Such behavior ought to be criticized. 这种行为应受到批评。
He ought to be (have been) given a chance to try. 应当给他尝试的机会。
This ought to be done right away. 这事应当马上去做。
He ought to have been inoculated. 他本应先打预防针的。
2) 由be going to 构成的被动结构:
When is the dam going to be completed? 水坝什么时候建好?
How many people are going to be sent there? 将派多少人去那里?
Two of them were going to be promoted. 他们中有两人将要升职。
Her drama was going to be produced in July. 她的话剧定于七月份上演。
3) 由has (have/had) to 构成的被动结构:
This has to be done promptly. 这事必须赶快办理。
Many problems have to be discussed at the meeting. 很多问题得在会上商谈。
This will (would) have to be handled with care. 这事得小心处理。
These instructions had to be carried out to the letter. 这些指示必须不折不扣地执行。
4) 由“be+不定式”构成的被动结构:
This book is to be published next year. 这本书将于明年出版。
These old buildings are to be pulled down. 这些旧楼将要拆掉。
Not a soul was to be seen. 一个人影也看不到。
They were to have been married that fall, but she fell seriously ill. 他们本来那年秋天结婚,但她得了重病。
5) 由“be bound (sure) to”构成的被动结构:
She is bound to be convinced. 她一定会被说服。
They are (were) bound to be confronted with all sorts of difficulties. 他们肯定会面临种种困难。
These difficulties are sure to be overcome. 这些困难一定会被克服。
These questions are certain to be given careful considerations. 这些问题一定会给予认真考虑。
8)由“be about (due) to”构成的被动结构:
He was (is) about to be transferred to another place. 他即将被调往另一地区。
The rally was (is) due to be held on Saturday. 大会定于星期六召开
The work is not likely to be finished so soon. 这工作不太可能这么快就完成。
成语动词的被动结构
1)“及物动词+副词”的被动结构:
Their failure has been brought about by your own negligence. 这次失败是你们自己疏忽造成的。
The proposal was brought forward by Senator Douglas. 这个提案是参议员道格拉斯提出的。
His illness was brought on by his worries. 他忧虑成疾。
The theory of relativity was put forward by Einstein. 相对论是爱因斯坦提出来的。
2)“动词+介词”的被动结构:
The meeting was brought to a climax by her appearance on the stage. 她在台上出现使会议达到了高潮。
The matter was soon brought to his notice. 这事很快受到他的注意。
The baby was closely looked after by her. 宝宝受到她细致的照顾。
The plan was soon put into operation. 这计划不久就实施了。
3)“动词+副词(名词)+介词”的被动结构:
There are some things that are not easily put up with. 有些事是不容易忍受的。
Lazy people are looked down on by everyone. 懒人谁都瞧不起。
His efforts to improve himself are constantly made fun of. 他自我完善的努力经常遭人取笑。
They are taken care of by the factory’s nursery. 他们由工厂的幼儿园照顾。
一些特殊结构的被动形式
1) 双宾动词的被动结构:
双宾动词有些可用于被动结构,在多数情况下都把间接宾语变为主语,而把直接宾语保留下来,称为保留宾语(Retained Object)。
They were granted permission to visit the military base. 他们获准参观军事基地。
She was given a warm welcome. 她受到热烈欢迎。
We were assigned a lot of homework. 我们被布置了大量的家庭作业。
The best students are awarded scholarship. 最优秀的学生被颁给了奖学金。
有时也可把直接宾语变为主语,把间接宾语改为to引导的短语:
Excellent rooms are assigned to the girls. 上好的房间分给了那些姑娘。
The St. Mungo Prize was awarded to Mrs. Rayman. 圣曼戈奖颁给了雷门夫人。
2) 带复合宾语动词的被动结构:
You are requested to be present at the ceremony. 请您出席这个典礼。
She was made a model worker. 她被选为劳模。
Details of the contract haven’t been made public. 合同的细节尚未公布。
She was heard singing in the next room. 有人听见她在隔壁房间唱歌。
3)“be +过去分词+不定式”结构:
She is said to know five languages. 据说她懂得五种语言。
This was considered (thought) to be a great honor. 这被认为是很荣幸的事。
He’s rumored to have fled the country. 谣传他已逃离这个国家。
She’s reported to have broken a world record. 据报导她打破了一项世界纪录。
4)“it +be +过去分词+从句”结构:
It’s believed (said) that she has some supernatural powers. 据信(说)她有某些特异功能。
It’s rumored that the girl had eloped with her teacher. 谣传这女孩和她的老师私奔了。
It’s reported that they have discovered a new star. 据报导他们发现了一颗新星。
It was feared that they wouldn’t be able to defend the town. 大家担心守不住这座城市。

非谓语动词的被动形式编辑本段回目录

不定式的被动形式
不定式的被动形式可用作许多成分,如:
1) 用作宾语:
I must ask to be excused. 我得请求离开一小会儿。
She didn’t like to be treated as a child. 她不喜欢把她当作小孩。
He begged to be forgiven. 他请求宽恕。
2) 构成复合宾语:
She didn’t want her son to be taken away. 她不愿意她的儿子被带走。
I’d like this room to be redecorated. 我想让这个房间重新装饰一下。
He didn’t wish the subject to be mentioned in the letter. 他不希望在信里提及这个问题。
3) 用作定语:
There are a lot of things to be discussed. 有很多事要讨论。
There was not a soul to be seen in the park. 公园里一个人也看不见。
She was invited to a garden party to be held that night. 她被邀请参加那天晚上举行的游园会。
4) 用作状语:
She was sent there to be trained for the space flight. 她被派到那里接受太空飞行训练。
They were shipped to America to be sold as slaves. 他们被运到美洲卖作奴隶。
He shut himself in the room so as not to be disturbed. 他把自己关在屋里以免被人打扰。
5) 用作主语:
It’s an honor to be invited to the ceremony. 受邀参加典礼很是荣耀。
It’s a privilege to be allowed to study here. 获准在这里学习是难得的
What a shame for you three to be treated like that! 你们三人受到这样的对待真不象话!
6) 用作表语:
My only wish is to be allowed to try my method. 我唯一的愿望就是允许试验我的方法。
His dream was to be admitted to a good university. 他的梦想是获准进入一所好大学。
Her ambition was to be made a cinema actress. 她的志向是要当一名电影演员。
动名词的被动形式
动名词的被动形式也可担任某些句子成分,如:
1) 作动词宾语或介词宾语:
He hated being laughed at. 他讨厌被人嘲笑。
She couldn’t bear being treated like that. 她不能忍受这样的对待。
He was far from being satisfied. 他远未满足。
2) 作主语:
Being offered such a job was sheer good luck. 被给予这样一份工作纯属幸运。
It’s felt funny being called Grandmother. 被人称作奶奶感到怪怪的。
Being killed by sharks was a common occurrence. 以前被鲨鱼咬死是常有的事。
现在分词的被动形式
现在分词有时用于被动形式,如:
1) 构成复合宾语:
I saw him being carried away on a stretcher. 我看见他被人用担架抬走。
I watched the cargo being hoisted on board. 我看着货物被吊到船上。
One could hear all kinds of things being discussed there. 你可以听到那里在谈论的问题五花八门,无所不有。
2) 作定语:
She was not interested in the question being discussed. 她对正在讨论的问题没有兴趣。
The building being erected is a concert hall. 正在盖的建筑物是一座音乐厅。
This was a campaign being waged in the country. 这是国内正在开展的一项运动。
3) 作状语:
Being asked to give a performance, she couldn’t very well refuse. 大家要求她表演一个节目,她不好拒绝。
Being protected by a thick wall, they felt quite safe. 有一堵厚墙掩护,他们感到很安全。
Being well looked after, the baby was in perfect health. 有了很好的照顾,宝宝身体非常健康。
过去分词结构
过去分词本身就有被动意思,可以:
1) 和系动词构成谓语:
He nearly got hit by a car. 他差点给汽车撞了。
His wound has become infected. 他的伤口感染了。
I soon grew used to that kind of life. 很快我就习惯那种生活了。
2)构成复合宾语:
I’ve just had a photograph taken. 我刚刚照了一张相。
Go and get your hair cut. 去理一下发。
I don’t want anything said about this. 我不希望谁谈及此事。
3)用作状语:
Frustrated, he returned to his homeland. 他沮丧地回到故乡。
They laughed, friendly and pleased. 他们友好而高兴地笑了。
Greatly interested, I asked to join them in the game. 我很感兴趣,要求和他们一块儿玩。

Get+过去分词构成的被动语态编辑本段回目录

用Get+过去分词也可以构成被动语态,这种结构的句子侧重于动作的结果而不是动作本身。如: The man got hurt on his way home. 那个男人在回家的路上受伤了。 How did the glass get broken? 杯子怎么破了?

著名学者周海中教授在论文《Get-Passive研究》中指出:Get+过去分词的被动语态是一种新兴的被动语态形式;相对来说它的使用还没有Be+过去分词构成的被动语态那么广泛,一般限于口语和非正式书面语;但它却有着用得愈来愈多的趋势,是一种生气蓬勃的语言现象。

在什么情况下用被动结构编辑本段回目录

使用被动结构的主要情况
掌握被动结构的形式很重要,但使用却要慎重。一般说来,没有特殊理由不宜用被动结构。在多数情况下用主动结构是比较自然的。翻开一页书,你会发现百分之八九十的句子都用主动结构,只在一定情况下需用被动结构,例如:
1) 不知道动作的执行者是谁,这时只好用被动结构:
The monastery was built in the Middle Ages. 这座寺院建于中世纪。
Three people were injured. 三个人受了伤。
The building was burned down. 这座建筑完全焚毁了。
The boy was nearly drowned. 那孩子差点淹死。
When will the result be announced? 结果什么时候宣布?
The British general election was held in October. 英国十月份举行大选。
We are called on to take an active part in the movement. 号召我们积极参加这项运动。
He was jailed for six years. 他被监禁了六年。
2) 不必提到动作的执行者,因此也可用被动结构:
The book was published in 2000. 这书是2000年出版的。
A peace treaty was finally signed. 最终签定了一项和约。
The match had to be cancelled because of bad weather. 天气不好,比赛不得不取消。
The plant was shut down for two months. 工厂关闭了两个月。
Rent has to be paid in advance. 房租得预交。
Your hand will be X-rayed. 你的手要作X光透视检查。
Persistent foul play will be severely penalized. 不断犯规要受到重罚。
This problem will be dealt with in the next chapter. 这个问题将在下一章中讨论。
3) 动作的承受者(或结果)是谈话的中心:
Madame Bovery was written by Flaubert. 《包法利夫人》是福楼拜写的。
Are these goods made by machinery? 这些货物是机器生产的吗?
When she was ill her children were looked after by neighbors. 她生病时孩子们由邻居照管。
Philip was depressed by what he had gone through. 菲利普因他经历的事而沮丧。
这类句子常有一个by引导的短语说明动作的执行者,有时也可没有:
When he arrived home he was arrested (by a detective). 他到家时被捕了。
A new public library is being built (by our local council). 一座新的公共图书馆正在修建。
The house next door has been bought (by someone). 隔壁房子有人买了。
4) 动作的执行者很模糊(如指people,one等),故用被动结构也很自然:
It’s suggested that we put the meeting off. 有人建议会议延期举行。
This sort of advertisement is seen everywhere. 这种广告(人们)到处都可以看到。
He is suspected of taking bribery. 有人怀疑他受贿。
They are supposed to be living in New York. 人们认为他们住在纽约。
The letter has been opened! 这信有人拆开了!
He was believed to have made an important discovery. 据信他有了重大发现。
It was rumored that he was a spy. 谣传他是个间谍。
It’s alleged that the hostage is already dead. 有人说人质已经死了。
5) 为了措辞上的圆通,常避免说出动作的执行者:
You are requested to give us a talk on Japanese culture. 敬请您给我们作一个有关日本文化的讲座。
You are cordially invited to a dance to be given at the Teachers’ Club at 7 p.m. on May Day. 谨订于五一节晚七时于教师俱乐部举行舞会敬请光临。
It is generally considered rude to stare at people. 盯着看人通常认为是粗鲁无礼的。
It’s hoped that such things would not happen again. 希望这样的事不再发生。
It’s much to be regretted that you can’t join us in the trip. 你不能参与同行会是很遗憾的。
6) 为了使句子得到更好的安排:
He appeared on the stage and was warmly applauded by the audience. 他在台上出现,受到观众的热烈鼓掌。(这样用一个主语即可)
The plan was supported by those who wish to live on the campus. 这计划受到想在校园住的人的支持。(若为主动结构句子就较难安排)
They were killed by a grenade, which exploded under the car. 他们被一颗在汽车下爆炸的手榴弹炸死。
The principle of bottling is very simple. Food is put in jars, the jars and their contents are heated to a temperature which is maintained long enough to ensure that all bacteria, moulds and viruses are destroyed. 装瓶的操作很简单。把食物装在瓶内,把瓶子连同新盛的东西一起加热到某个温度,将这温度维持足够时间,以保证所有细菌、霉菌及病毒都被杀死。(这种安排意思清楚,行文流畅,把上面任何被动结构改为主动结构都可能造成困难)
一些常常使用被动结构的情况
1) 公告,通知:
Lying on the floor is strictly prohibited. 严禁躺在(车厢)地板上。
None of the reference books are to be taken out of the reading-room. 参考书不得携出阅览室。
Only fifty kilos are allowed for personal baggage. 个人携带物品只限五十公斤。
Applications must be sent in by 31st July. 必须于7月31日前提出申请。
2) 新闻报导:
The search for the bank robbers continues. Meanwhile many people have been questioned and the owner of the stolen getaway car has been traced. 搜索银行劫匪的行动在继续着。与此同时,许多人受到盘问,并一直在查找劫匪逃逸所偷汽车的车主。
3) 报纸标题(动词be常被省略):
Congressman Assassinated! 国会议员遭到暗杀!
Two Drug Traffickers Hanged in Singapore! 两名毒贩在新加坡被绞死!
Five-year-old Boy Kidnapped! 五岁男童遭到绑架!
4) 科技文章:
The mixture is placed in a crucible and is heated to a temperature of 300℃. It is then allowed to cool before it can be analyzed. 将混合物液置于坩埚中,加热至摄氏300度,然后令其冷却,随后便可进行分析。


 

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