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25 Common Words That You’ve Got Wrong

25个理解错误的常用词Everybody talks a lot. It’s one of the most frequent things we as human beings do. We need it to communicate. People do it for entertainment. Just because we all do it all the time doesn’t mean we have perfected the craft. Here are a bunch of common words everyone uses but most use incorrectly.


1. Irony反讽

What you think it means: Something that is funny.

What it really means: Contrary to what you are expecting.

This is a famous one because so many people get this wrong so often. It’s also kind of hard to explain, so we’ll use an example. The Titanic was boasted about as being 100% unsinkable and then in 1912 it was sunk anyway. That is what is called cosmic irony. When a starving vegetarian eats a pepperoni pizza, that is what is called situational irony. There are other kinds too, such as dramatic irony and Socratic irony. Believe it or not, sarcasm is actually irony. When you say something sarcastically, your tone and your words mean two opposite things. That is ironic. Irony can be funny but not everything funny is irony.




2. Travesty曲解

What you think it means: A tragedy or something unfortunate.

What it really means: A mockery or parody.

This is another one that people have wrong fairly frequently. You’ve heard people call 9/11 a travesty. Truth be told 9/11 was a tragedy. A travesty is actually a mockery or a parody. One might say that a Weird Al Yankovic album is a travesty. With how often this word is associated with tragedy, we wouldn’t be shocked if that definition were eventually added as an acceptable meaning. Until then, it doesn’t mean anything bad happened.



这是另一个人们经常用错的词。你可能听过别人用travesty (滑稽)形容911事件。Travesty实际上是嘲讽或拙劣的模仿的意思。有人可能将怪人艾尔?扬科维奇的专辑描述为滑稽之作(Travesty)。因为这个词语常常与悲剧(tragedy)一词混为一谈,所以如果这个含义最后变成一个可接受的意思,我们也不必惊讶。到那时候,这个词就不会有不好的含义了。

3. Ultimate终极

What you think it means: The one, the only. The best.

What it really means: The last item of a list.

Some people do actually use this one properly. You may see someone list off a bunch of things and hear them say, “Okay, at the store we need eggs, milk, juice, and ultimately, butter.” That is actually the proper use of ultimate. There is no other context or added context. It simply means the last one.




4. Conversate交谈

What you think it means: To have a conversation.

What it really means: Nothing.

Conversate actually doesn’t exist and I’ll prove it to you. Go into a program that underlines words with red if they’re spelled wrong. Now type out conversate. Did you see the red line? Conversate was meant to be a mixture of conversation and converse and be used as a verb. However, converse is a verb and there really isn’t a need for a second verb to describe the same action.




5. Peruse精读

What you think it means: To skim or browse.

What it really means: To observe in depth.

When you peruse something, you are actually taking a very close look at it. When you’re at a record store (remember those?) and you’re just running through a stack of records, you are just browsing. If you pick up a record and look at the artist, track list, and additional information on the back, then your are perusing.




6. Bemused迷惑

What you think it means: Amused.

What it really means: Confused.

This is one of the many words on this list that will make you strongly dislike the English language. Despite looking all but identical to the word amused, bemused doesn’t even come close to meaning the same thing. If you are bemused then you are actually confused.




7. Compelled迫使

What you think it means: To do something voluntarily by choice.

What it really means: To be forced or obligated to doing something.

This is one that people get wrong and it’s rather understandable. The real definition is very close to the definition people generally use. The difference is the motivation. When people say compelled, they think the person wants to perform the action. In fact, they are forced to do it regardless of their personal feelings. Here’s an example. When you’re in court, you are compelled to give honest testimony. You may not want to, but it doesn’t matter because you have to.




8. Nauseous令人厌恶的

What you think it means: To feel ill.

What it really means: To cause feelings of illness.

This is another understandable mishap that a lot of people make. If you actually feel sick then you are nauseated. The object that made you feel ill is nauseous. Here’s how this works. If you’re at an amusement park and you’re sitting next to a full trash can, the fumes from the trash may make you feel ill. That means the fumes from the trash can are nauseous because they are making you feel nauseated.




9. Redundant累赘的

What you think it means: Repetitive.

What it really means: Unnecessarily excessive.

This one is tough because you can use it wrong but unintentionally use it right. When you repeat something a bunch of times, it can become redundant, but redundant expands far beyond just repeating things over and over. A popular thing companies are doing now is firing people but instead of calling it “getting fired,” they call it “eliminating redundancies.” The premise being that the employee they’re firing is unnecessary and excessive and they are thus eliminating them. In pretty much any scenario where there is simply too much of something, it is redundant.




10. Enormity暴行

What you think it means: Huge, enormous.

What it really means: Profoundly immoral or evil.

Don’t beat yourself up over this one because no one knows this one off the top of their head. Enormity sounds like enormous and as with many of our other examples, here we expect words that sound alike to have similar meanings. Enormity simply means really evil. An example of how to use it is the following: “The enormity of the crimes committed by the Nazis in World War II.” It doesn’t mean the enormous crimes, it means the heinous crimes.




11. Terrific可怕的

What you think it means: Fantastic, good.

What it really means: Horrific, to inspire fear.

This is another one that we expect will be changed in the dictionary eventually because barely anyone uses the real meaning anymore. When people say they feel terrific, they mean to say they feel fantastic. An example of something terrific is King Kong. You see a giant monster and it inspires fear. We’re going to loop awesome in with this one too. Awesome simply means to inspire awe and people often use it to describe something really good.




12. Effect影响

What you may think it means: To cause something to change.

What it really means: An event that causes a change.

A lot of people staunchly defend the wrong definition of this and it’s understandable. When action A causes a change in object B, action A affected object B and object B has been affected. Effect is an event that causes a change. In our prior example, action A is, in and of itself, an effect because it affects things. It’s admittedly confusing to explain but easy to remember. If it’s a noun, it’s an effect. If it’s a verb, it’s an affect.




13. Disinterested无私的

What you think it means: Bored.

What it really means: Neutral.

A good way to remember this one is that there is a word that means bored and it’s uninterested. If you’re uninterested, you’re bored. Being disinterested is the long-form equivalent of stating that you don’t care about something.




14. Irregardless不管

What you think it means: Without regard.

What it really means: Nothing.

Like conversate above, irregardless isn’t actually a word. When people say irregardless, they actually mean to say regardless. Regardless means without regard. Irregardless has been used so often that it actually is in the dictionary now and that’s kind of sad. Even though it is technically there, there are a large number of people who don’t consider it a word. You can save yourself a couple of keystrokes and a tongue lashing by just using regardless.




15. Chronic慢性的

What you think it means: Severe.

What it really means: Over the course of a long time.

This is definitely one that people ought to know better. When you have severe pain, it is just severe pain. If you have chronic pain, you have been in pain for a long, long time. Chronic conditions and diseases are called chronic because they won’t go away and not because they’re overly severe.



这个词是人们理应了解的。当你患有severe pain(严重的疼痛)时,你就感到非常痛。如果你患有chronic pain(慢性疼痛)的疾病时,你的疼痛会持续很长很长一段时间。慢性的状态和疾病被称为慢性病,因为这样的疼痛不会消失,只会随着时间的推移越来越严重。

16. i.e.即

What you think it means: For example.

What it really means: In other words.

This is one among a number of shortened words that confuse people. Here’s a quick guide on how to use them. Et cetera is etc., example is ex. or e.g., and in other words is i.e. When you use i.e. you’re essentially putting it there to let people know that you’re going to be stating the same information in different words. Here’s how it really works. It’s June and I moved into my new apartment in April, i.e., two months ago.



这个词就是让人迷惑的众多缩写中的一个。下面是教你如何使用这些词的快速介绍。Et cetera的缩写是etc.(等等),example的缩写是ex.或e.g.(例如),in other words 的缩写是 i.e.(也就是)。当你使用i.e.时,你旨在让人知道你要换句话解释同样的信息。它的真正用法是:现在是六月,我在四月份,也就是说两个月前,搬进了新公寓。

17. Decimate消灭十分之一

What you think it means: To destroy or annihilate

What it really means: To destroy ten percent.

This one is really goofy and one day this won’t be true. For the time being, decimate actually means removing only ten percent of something. If you know a little bit about words it’s not difficult to figure out. The prefix “dec” means ten. However, the traditional definition of this word is antiquated and it’ll probably be changed eventually. Until then, it’s technically correct to use a word like exterminate or annihilate instead.




18. Panacea治百病的灵药

What you think it means: A cure.

What it really means: A cure for a lot of things.

This one is easy to confuse because the explanation is virtually the same even if the definitions are vastly different. A panacea is something that cures a lot of things all at once. For instance, penicillin is a panacea. It cures a bunch of diseases. The flu vaccine is not a panacea because it only protects against the flu.




19. Fortuitous偶然的

What you think it means: Lucky.

What it really means: By chance.

There is a difference between luck and chance. Unfortunately, people use the two interchangeably, so much so that it’s difficult to explain the differences anymore. Lucky is an event that happens by chance that can be described as fortunate. Winning the lottery is lucky. Fortuitous means simply by chance. For instance if you drop your basketball and it bounces into the road and gets hit by a car, that’s a fortuitous instance. It’s neutral, so it can be good or bad things that happen by chance.




20. Plethora过多

What you think it means: A lot of something.

What it really means: More than is needed.

This is one I use incorrectly all the time. In fact, I almost used it a couple of times in this very article. Plethora simply means that there is more of something than is needed. For instance, you may think that 5,000 people is a plethora of people. However, when you put them into a hockey arena that seats 13,000 people, it’s actually less than half capacity and therefore not a plethora. If you had 13,500 people in that same arena, that would be a plethora of people.



这个词我一直用错了。实际上,我在这篇文章中就用了几次。Plethora仅仅指某件事超过了需要。例如,你可能认为5000人是plethora of people。但是当你将他们安排在能容纳13000人的曲棍球场,那不到场内座位的一半,这可称不上plethora(过多)。如果你将135000人安排进入了球场,那才叫plethora of people(人过多)。

21. Total总数

Total means exactly what you think it means but total is used unnecessarily on a frequent basis. When there is a total of 50 people who do something, the total is 50 whether or not you use the word “total.” Or you might hear someone say that they were totally surprised. Surprise is not a conditional emotion. You were either surprised or not. The use of total didn’t add anything of value to the sentence. In most cases, the definition is correct but using the word is repetitive when put in context with the rest of the sentence.

Total就是你认为的那个意思,但是这个词被太过于频繁地使用了。当一共50人做某件事,总数为50,不论你用了这个词没有。可能你听到有人说他们totally surprised(非常惊讶)。惊讶不是种可衡量的情绪。只有惊讶或者不惊讶之分。Total在这个句子中并没有承担任何成份。多数情况下,意思是对的,但与句中的其他成分重复。

22. Literally实际上

What you think it means: Figuratively.

What it really means: Actually.

This is something that has come about relatively recently and my generation may have helped propagate this one. Literally means actually. When something is literally true, it is actually true. If I haven’t seen my friend in literally five years then I actually haven’t seen them in five years. People use literally along with hyperbole to show an emotion: “I haven’t had Chinese food in literally a million years.” This is meant to denote that the person hasn’t had Chinese food in a while. The word those people actually want is figuratively. They probably literally hadn’t had it in a few days or weeks.



这个词的误解是最近才出现的,可能我们这一代人还起到了推波助澜的作用。Literally的意思就是实际上。当一件事情Literally是真的,那就确实是真的。如果我literally 5年没见过我的朋友了,那就是我真的五年没有见过我的朋友了。人们常常将literally放在夸张句中表现情绪:“我真的几百万年没吃过中国菜了。”这旨在表示这个人有段时间没尝过中国菜了。这些人想用的词其实是figuratively(比喻多的)。可能他们只是几天或者几个星期没有尝过而已。

23. Can能

What you think it means: What is permissible.

What it really means: What is possible.

This is one you have to nip in the bud in childhood because it’s much harder to correct in adulthood. When you can do something, you have capacity within you to perform that action regardless of whether or not you actually do it. I can bang my head into my desk but I absolutely will not do it. When people use can incorrectly it is because they mean to use the word “may.” When you ask someone if they can open the door, you did not ask them to open the door. You asked them if they were capable of opening the door. If you wish for them to perform the task, you should ask if they will open the door. When you ask if you can have something, you’re not asking someone to give it to you. You’re asking if you have the capacity to own it. If you need something, ask if you may have it.



这个词的错误使用必须扼杀在摇篮中,因为长大后就难以纠正了。当你能做某事,表示你有能力做出行动,不管你到底做还是不做。我能把我的头塞入课桌,但是我绝对不会这么做。人们错误使用can,因为他们想用的词其实是may。你问某人他们能不能(can)开开门,并不是叫他们开门。你问他们有没有能力打开门。如果你希望他们做这件事,你应该问他们开不开门(will )。当你问你能(can)有某东西吗,你并不是寻求别人将它送给你,而是问你有没有能力拥有它。如果你需要某物,就问你可不可以(may)拥有它。

24. Defective有缺陷的

What you think it means: That something is broken or missing pieces.

What it really means: Simply that it’s broken.

You’ll see this one a lot in Amazon reviews. People will say that their unit came defective because it was missing a screw or pieces in the box. That’s actually incorrect. What they mean to say is that their product is deficient. It’s missing pieces, it is not actually broken. The machine may work perfectly fine once the missing pieces have been re-added, which means that it actually isn’t defective at all.




25. Obsolete废弃的

What you think it means: Old, out of date.

What it really means: Not produced, used, or needed.

You’ll see this one in the tech industry a lot. People in tech article comments will comment that a phone is obsolete when they really mean that it’s out of date. The literal definition of obsolete is an item that it isn’t produced, needed, or used anymore. An example of this is is the steam engine. It’s largely inefficient compared to today’s combustion engine and even more inefficient than the emerging electric engines. Thus, steam engines are not used, produced, or needed anymore. Yes, they are also old and out of date, but obsolete is kind of the next step after old and out of date.



你在技术行业能常常看到这个词。人们在技术文章评论中常写到这个电话obsolete(废弃的),而真正想表达的意思是out of date(过时的)。Obsolete字面上的意思是指不再生产、需要或者使用的物件。例如,蒸汽机。和今天的内燃机、甚至电动引擎相比,蒸汽机早就满足不了需要了。因此,蒸汽机不再被使用、生产、需要。当然,它们也是老旧的、过时的,但是obsolete是这个状态的更进一步。

Wrap up注意

The English language is a finicky one but it’s also ever changing. Words are updated and definitions change. New words are added every year and some are retired. Very few people will ever master the entire language and the rest of us will just have to do the best we can!




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