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In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.
Writing a Research Paper
I. Research Papers and Ordinary Essay
A. Similarity in (1) __________:
e.g. —choosing a topic
—asking questions
—identifying the audience
B. Difference mainly in terms of (2) ___________
1. research papers: printed sources
2. ordinary essay: ideas in one's (3) ___________
II. Types and Characteristics of Research Papers
A. Number of basic types: two
B. Characteristics:
1. survey-type paper:
—to gather (4) ___________
—to quote
—to (5) _____________
The writer should be (6) ___________.
2. argumentative (research) paper:
a. The writer should do more, e.g.
—to interpret
—to question, etc.
b. (7) _________varies with the topic, e.g.
—to recommend an action, etc.
III. How to Choose a Topic for a Research Paper
In choosing a topic, it is important to (8) __________.
Question No. 1: your familiarity with the topic
Question No. 2: Availability of relevant information on the chosen topic
Question No. 3: Narrowing the topic down to (9) _________
Question No. 4: Asking questions about (10) ___________
The questions help us to work out way into the topic and discover its possibilities.

In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet.
Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.Now listen to the interview.
1. What is the purpose of Professor McKay's report?
A. To look into the mental health of old people.
B. To explain why people have negative views on old age.
C. To help correct some false beliefs about old age.
D. To identify the various problems of old age
2. Which of the following is NOT Professor McKay's view?
A. People change in old age a lot more than at the age of 21.
B. There are as many sick people in old age as in middle age.
C. We should not expect more physical illness among old people.
D. We should not expect to find old people unattractive as a group.
3. According to Professor McKay's report,
A. family love is gradually disappearing.
B. it is hard to comment on family feeling.
C. more children are indifferent to their parents.
D. family love remains as strong as ever.
4. Professor McKay is ________ towards the tendency of more parents living apart from their children.
A. negative
B. positive
C. ambiguous
D. neutral
5. The only popular belief that Professor McKay is unable to provide evidence against is
A. old-age sickness.
B. loose family ties.
C. poor mental abilities.
D. difficulities in maths.

In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet.
Question 6 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.
6. Scientists in Brazil have used frog skin to
A. eliminate bacteria.
B. treat burns.
C. Speed up recovery.
D. reduce treatment cost.
Question 7 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.
7. What is NOT a feature of the new karaoke machine?
A. It is featured by high technology.
B. It allows you to imitate famous singers.
C. It can automatically alter the tempo and tone of a song.
D. It can be placed in specially designed theme rooms.
Question 8 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.
8. China's Internet users had reached _________ by the end of June.
A. 68 million
B. 8.9 million
C. 10 million
D. 1.5 million
Question 9 and 10 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.
9. According to the WTO, Chinese exports rose _________ last year.
A. 21%
B. 10%
C. 22%
D. 4.73
10. According to the news, which trading nation in the top 10 has reported a 5 per cent fall in exports?
A. The UK
B. The US
C. Japan
D. Germany


I remember meeting him one evening with his pushcart. I had managed to sell all my papers and was coming home in the snow. It was that strange hour in downtown New York when the workers were pouring homeward in the twilight. I marched among thousands of tired men and women whom the factory whistles had unyoked. They flowed in rivers through the clothing factory districts, then down along the avenues to the East Side. 
I met my father near Cooper Union. I recognized him, a hunched, frozen figure in an old overcoat standing by a banana cart. He looked so lonely, the tears came to my eyes. Then he saw me, and his face lit with his sad, beautiful smile -Charlie Chaplin's smile. 
"Arch, it's Mikey," he said. "So you have sold your papers! Come and eat a banana." 
He offered me one. I refused it. I felt it crucial that my father sell his bananas, not give them away. He thought I was shy, and coaxed and joked with me, and made me eat the banana. It smelled of wet straw and snow. 
"You haven't sold many bananas today, pop," I said anxiously.
He shrugged his shoulders.
"What can I do? No one seems to want them."
It was true. The work crowds pushed home morosely over the pavements. The rusty sky darkened over New York building, the tall street lamps were lit, innumerable trucks, street cars and elevated trains clattered by. Nobody and nothing in the great city stopped for my father's bananas.
"I ought to yell," said my father dolefully. "I ought to make a big noise like other peddlers, but it makes my throat sore. Anyway, I'm ashamed of yelling, it makes me feel like a fool. "
I had eaten one of his bananas. My sick conscience told me that I ought to pay for it somehow. I must remain here and help my father.
"I'll yell for you, pop," I volunteered.
"Arch, no," he said, "go home; you have worked enough today. Just tell momma I'll be late."
But I yelled and yelled. My father, standing by, spoke occasional words of praise, and said I was a wonderful yeller. Nobody else paid attention. The workers drifted past us wearily, endlessly; a defeated army wrapped in dreams of home. Elevated trains crashed; the Cooper Union clock burned above us; the sky grew black, the wind poured, the slush burned through our shoes. There were thousands of strange, silent figures pouring over the sidewalks in snow. None of them stopped to buy bananas. I yelled and yelled, nobody listened.
My father tried to stop me at last. "Nu," he said smiling to console me, "that was wonderful yelling. Mikey. But it's plain we are unlucky today! Let's go home."
I was frantic, and almost in tears. I insisted on keeping up my desperate yells. But at last my father persuaded me to leave with him.
11. "unyoked" in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to
A. sent out
B. released
C. dispatched
D. removed
12. Which of the following in the first paragraph does NOT indicated crowds of people?
A.Thousands of
B. Flowed
C. Pouring
D. Unyoked
13. Which of the following is intended to be a pair of contrast in the passage?
A. Huge crowds and lonely individuals.
B. Weather conditions and street lamps.
C. Clattering trains and peddlers' yells.
D. Moving crowds and street traffic.
14. Which of the following words is NOT suitable to describe the character of the son?
A. Compassionate
B. Responsible
C. Shy
D. Determined
15. What is the theme of the story?
A. The misery of the factory workers.
B. How to survive in a harsh environment.
C. Generation gap between the father and the son.
D. Love between the father and the son.
16. What is the author's attitude towards the father and the son?
A. Indifferent
B. Sympathetic
C. Appreciative
D. Difficult to tell

When former President Ronald Reagan fell and broke his hip two weeks ago, he joined a group of more than 350,000 elderly Americans who fracture their hips each year. At 89 and suffering from advanced Alzheimer's disease, Reagan is in one of the highest-risk groups for this type of accident. The incidence of hip fractures not only increases after age 50 but doubles every five to six years as the risk of falling increases. Slipping and tumbling are not the only causes of hip fractures; weakened bones sometimes break spontaneously. But falling is the major cause, representing 90% of all hip fractures. These... ...
17. The following are all specific measures to guard against injuries with the EXCEPTION of
A. removal of throw rugs.
B. easy access to devices
C. installation of grab bars
D. re-arrangement of furniture
18. In which paragraph does the author state his purpose of writing?
A. The third paragraph
B. The first paragraph
C. The last paragraph
D. The last but one paragraph
19. The main purpose of the passage is to
A. offer advice on how to prevent hip fractures
B. emphasize the importance of health precautions
C. discuss the seriousness of hip fractures.
D. identify the causes of hip fractures.

In his classic novel, "The Pioneers", James Fenimore Cooper has his hero, a land developer, take his cousin on a tour of the city he is building. He describes the broad streets, rows of houses, a teeming metropolis. But his cousin looks around bewildered. All she sees is a forest. "Where are the beauties and improvements which you were to show me?" she asks. He's astonished she can't see them. "Where! Everywhere," he replies. For though they are not yet built on earth, he has built them in his mind, and they as concrete to him as if they were already constructed and finished.
Cooper was illustrating a distinctly American trait, future-mindedness: the ability to see the present from the vantage point of the future; the freedom to feel unencumbered by the past and more emotionally attached to things to come. As Albert Einstein once said, "Life for the American is always becoming, never being."... ...
20. The third paragraph examines America's future-mindedness from the _________ perspective.
A. future
B. realistic
C. historical
D. present
21. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT brought about by future-mindedness?
A. Economic stagnation
B. Environmental destruction
C. High divorce rates
D. Neglect of history
22. The word "pooh-pooh" in the sixth paragraph means
A. appreciate
B. praise
C. shun
D. ridicule
23. According to the passage, people at present can forecast ________ of a new round of future-mindedness.
A. the nature
B. the location
C. the variety
D. the features
24. The author predicts in the last paragraph that the study of future-mindedness will focus on
A. how it comes into being
B. how it functions
C. what it brings about
D. what it is related to.

25. The phrase "men's sureness of their sex role" in the first paragraph suggests that they
A. are confident in their ability to charm women.
B. take the initiative in courtship.
C. have a clear idea of what is considered "manly".
D. tend to be more immoral than women are.
26. The third paragraph does NOT claim that men
A. prevent women from taking up certain professions.
B. secretly admire women's intellect and resolution.
C. doubt whether women really mean to succeed in business.
D. forbid women to join certain clubs and societies.
27. The third paragraph
A. generally agrees with the first paragraph
B. has no connection with the first paragraph
C. repeats the argument of the second paragraph
D. contradicts the last paragraph
28. At the end of the last paragraph the author uses humorous exaggeration in order to
A. show that men are stronger than women
B. carry further the ideas of the earliest paragraphs
C. support the first sentence of the same paragraph
D. disown the ideas he is expressing
29. The usual idea of the cave man in the last paragraph
A. is based on the study of archaeology
B. illustrates how people expect men to behave
C. is dismissed by the author as an irrelevant joke
D. proves that the man, not woman, should be the wooer
30. The opening quotation from Margaret Mead sums up a relationship between man and woman which the author
A. approves of
B. argues is natural
C. completely rejects
D. expects to go on changing
31. ______ is the capital city of Canada.
A. Vancouver
B. Ottawa
C. Montreal
D. York
32. U.S. presidents normally serves a (an) _________term.
A. two-year
B. four-year
C. six-year
D. eight-year
33. Which of the following cities is NOT located in the Northeast, U.S.?
A. Huston.
B. Boston.
C. Baltimore.
D. Philadelphia.
34. ________ is the state church in England.
A. The Roman Catholic Church.
B. The Baptist Church
C. The Protestant Church
D. The Church of England
35. The novel Emma is written by
A. Mary Shelley.
B. Charlotte Bront?.
C. Elizabeth C. Gaskell.
D. Jane Austen.
36. Which of following is NOT a romantic poet?
A. William Wordsworth.
B. George Elliot.
C. George G. Byron.
D. Percy B. Shelley.
37. William Sidney Porter, known as O. Henry, is most famous for
A. his poems.
B. his plays.
C. his short stories.
D. his novels
38. Syntax is the study of
A. language functions.
B. sentence structures.
C. textual organization.
D. word formation.
39. Which of the following is NOT a distinctive feature of human language?
A. Arbitrariness
B. Productivity
C. Cultural transmission
D. Finiteness
40. The speech act theory was first put forward by
A. John Searle.
B. John Austin.
C. Noam Chomsky.
D. M.A.K. Halliday.


31. ______ is the capital city of Canada.
A. Vancouver
B. Ottawa
C. Montreal
D. York
32. U.S. presidents normally serves a (an) _________term.
A. two-year
B. four-year
C. six-year
D. eight-year
33. Which of the following cities is NOT located in the Northeast, U.S.?
A. Huston
B. Boston
C. Baltimore
D. Philadelphia
34. ________ is the state church in England.
A. The Roman Catholic Church
B. The Baptist Church
C. The Protestant Church
D. The Church of England
35. The novel Emma is written by________
A. Mary Shelley
B. Charlotte Bront?
C. Elizabeth C. Gaskell
D. Jane Austen
36. Which of following is NOT a romantic poet?
A. William Wordsworth
B. George Elliot
C. George G. Byron
D. Percy B. Shelley
37. William Sidney Porter, known as O. Henry, is most famous for________
A. his poems
B. his plays
C. his short stories
D. his novels
38. Syntax is the study of________
A. language functions
B. sentence structures
C. textual organization
D. word formation
39. Which of the following is NOT a distinctive feature of human language?
A. Arbitrariness
B. Productivity
C. Cultural transmission
D. Finiteness
40. The speech act theory was first put forward by________
A. John Searle
B. John Austin
C. Noam Chomsky
D. M.A.K. Halliday


A number of colleges and universities have announced steep
tuition increases for next year much steeper than the current,
very low, rate of inflation. They say the increases are needed because
of a loss in value of university endowments' heavily investing in common (1)
stock. I am skeptical. A business firm chooses the price that maximizes
its net revenues, irrespective fluctuations in income; and increasingly the (2)
outlook of universities in the United States is indistinguishable from those of (3)
business firms. The rise in tuitions mayreflect the fact economic uncertainty (4)
increases the demand for education. The biggest cost of being
in the school is foregoing income from a job (this isprimarily a factor in (5)
graduate and professional-school tuition); the poor one' s job prospects, (6)
the more sense it makes to reallocate time from the job market to education,
in order to make oneself more marketable. The ways which universities make themselves attractive to students (7)
include soft majors, student evaluations of teachers, giving students
a governance role, and eliminate required courses. (8)
Sky-high tuitions have caused universities to regard their students as
customers. Just as business firms sometimes collude to shorten the (9)
rigors of competition, universities collude to minimize the cost to them of the
athletes whom they recruit in order to stimulate alumni donations, so the best
athletes now often bypass higher education in order to obtain salaries earlier
from professional teams. And until they were stopped by the antitrust authorities,
the Ivy League schools colluded to limit competition for the best students, by
agreeing not to award scholarships on the basis of merit rather than purely
of need-just like business firms agreeing not to give discounts on their best (10)


Translate the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

Translate the following underlined part of the text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
It is simple enough to say that since books have classes fiction, biography,poetry—we should separate them and take from each what it is right that each should give us. Yet few people ask from books what books can give us. Most commonly we come to books with blurred and divided minds, asking of fiction that it shall be true, of poetry that it shall be false, of biography that it shall be flattering, of history that it shall enforce our own prejudices. If we could banish all such preconception when we read, that would be an admirable beginning. Do not dictate to your author; try to become him. Be his fellowworker and accomplice.If you hang back, and reserve and criticize at first, you are preventing yourself from getting the fullest possible value from what you read. But if you open your mind as widely as possible, then signs and hints of almost imperceptible finess, from the twist and turn of the first sentences, will bring you into the presence of a human being unlike any other. Steep yourself in this, acquaint yourself with this, and soon you will find that your author is giving you, or attempting to give you, something far more definite.


Interview is frequently used by employers as a means to recruit prospective employees. As a result, there have been many arguments for or against the interview as a 0selection procedure. What is your opinion? Write an essay of about 400 words to state your view.


1. basic steps 2. raw materials 3. head 4. facts
5. explain 6. objective 7. purpose 8. ask questions
9. a manageable size 10. the topic itself
1. C 2. A 3. D 4. B 5. D
6. B 7. C 8. A 9. C 10. B

11. B 12. D 13. A 14. C 15. D
16. B 17. D 18. A 19. A 20. C
21. A 22. D 23. B 24. A 25. C
26. B 27. A 28. C 29. B 30. A

31. B 32. B 33. A 34. D 35. D
36. B 37. C 38. B 39. D 40. B
34注:The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion.
37注:O. Henry was the pen name of William Sydney Porter (September 11, 1862 - June 5, 1910), He was famous for his short stories and a master of the surprise ending, O. Henry is remembered best for such enduring favorites as "The Gift of the Magi" and "The Ransom of Red Chief." The combination of humor and sentiment found in his stories is the basis of their universal appeal.
38注:Definition of Syntax:
a. The study of the rules whereby words or other elements of sentence structure are combined to form grammatical sentences.
b. A publication, such as a book, that presents such rules.
c. The pattern of formation of sentences or phrases in a language.
d. Such a pattern in a particular sentence or discourse.
39注:Arbitrariness. 任意性 Productivity. 丰富性 Cultural transmission. 文化传播性 Finiteness. 局限性
design feature: features that define our human languages,such as arbitrariness,duality,creativity,displacement,cultural transmission,etc.
40注:John Langshaw Austin (March 28, 1911 - February 8, 1960) was a philosopher of language, who developed much of the current theory of speech acts. He was born in Lancaster and educated at Balliol College, Oxford. After serving in MI6 during World War II, Austin became White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at Oxford. He occupies a place in the British philosophy of language alongside Wittgenstein in staunchly advocating the examination of the way words are used in order to elucidate meaning.

1. investing应改为invested。这里说“投资于”普通股中的捐赠金价值损失惨重,既然是投资,就是指人
去投资,即endowments (that were)heavily invested in.括号内的部分是被省略的部分,本句形式上是主动,实际意义上为被动,因此应该把investing改为invested,否则逻辑上和语法上都是说不通的。
2. 在irrespective和fluctuations之间加上介词of。irrespectiveOf是一固定用法,意指“不论,不管,不顾,”等,如:irrespectiveOfthecost不惜工本,irrespective of the consequences不顾后果,irrespective of duty status不论职位高低。此处指公司不顾收入的波动变化。
3. 把those改为that。本句的后半部分主要强调的是大学里的“看法或观点”(outlook)与企业公司的看法或观点不一样,即着眼点在于对两种不同团体看法的对比。既然前面用的是单数形式,后面也应用单数形式,基本语法规则是前后应一致,本句为代词those的误用,所以应把those改为that。
5.把定冠词the去掉。定冠词与一名词连用,表示某个或某些特定的人或物或机构等,而此处的in the school,一则意思不清,二则可能指在某人正在某个具体学校做某事。这一层意思与本文上下文不相吻合。比较之下,inschool是一固定说法,表示“在上学或求学”、“在校读书”正符合本文上下文的意思。因此应把定冠词去掉。
7.在ways和which之间加上一个介词in。在ways和which之间加上一个介词in,表示intheseways,即指通过前面提到的这些方法。相似的句子较多,如:Not all sounds made by animals serve as language,and we have only to turn to that extra ordinary discovery of echo-location in bats to see a case in which the voice plays a strictly utilitarian role.(动物发出的声音并不是都能当作语言,因此我们只好求助于蝙蝠回声定位的这种非凡的发展,探究一下语音在何种情况下起着绝对有用的作用。)
8.这里应该用动词的—lng形式,即eliminating,以便使句型结构与前面的giving(students a governance role)保持一致,否则句子结构和意思都显得不正确。
10.将to give discounts on改为to give discounts to their best customer。意为实业公司给最好的客户提供优惠。而give discount on something则指就某一商品打折扣,显然与本文的上下文是相悖的。因为本文一直在讨论就如何避免为抢最好的生源而展开恶性竞争,为抢好学生捉供优厚奖学金,与公司为抢客源,给最好的客户提供优惠道理是一样的。所以应做上述改动。

   How significant is a person s life? Is there any standard to measure it? It will be very difficult to put forward an absolute standard, but in general, the significance of one s existence can be estimated by how he treats his life, by what attitude he takes to work and what ways he chooses to live.
   From ancient times up to now, all the accomplished people treat their lives very seriously. They work and, learn as much as possible. They hate to spend the best of their lives in vain, they do not want to let their time slip by. All the laboring people, great statesmen and thinkers of our country at all ages treasure their time in this way. 

    既然书籍有不同的门类,如小说、传记、诗歌等,我们就应该把它们区分开来,并从每种中汲取它应当给我们提供的正确的东西;这话说起来固然容易,然而,很少有人要求从书籍中得到它们所能提供的东西,通常我们总是三心二意地带着模糊的观念去看书:要求小说情节真实,要求诗歌内容虚构,要求传记阿谀奉承,要求历史能加深我们自己的偏见。如果我们读书时能抛弃所有这些成见,那将是一个极可贵的开端。我们对作者不要指手划脚,而应努力站在作者的立场上,设想自己在与作者共同创作。假如你退缩不前,有所保留并且一开始就批评指责,你就在妨碍自己从你所读的书中得到最大的益处, 然而,如果你能尽量敞开思想,那么,书中开头几句迂回曲折的话里所包含的几乎难以觉察的细微的迹象和暗示,就会把你引到一个与众不同的人物的面前去。如果你深入下去,如果你去认识这个人物,你很快就会领悟作者正在给你或试图给你某些明确得多的东西。倘若我们首先考虑怎样读小说,那么,一部小说中的三十二章就是企图创造出象一座建筑物那样既有一定的形式而各部分又受到控制的东西,不过词句要比砖块难以捉摸,阅读的过程要比看一看更费时、更复杂。理解小说家创作工作的各项要素的捷径也许并不是阅读,而是写作,而是亲自试一试遣词造句中的艰难险阻。那么,回想一下给你留下鲜明印象的某些事——比如,你怎样在大街的拐角处从两个正在交谈着的人身边走过,树在摇曳、灯光在晃动,谈话的语气既喜又悲;这一瞬间似乎包含了一个完整的想象,一个整体的构思。

                        Interview, An Effective Way to Recruit Employees
   Nowadays, interview is frequently used by employers as one of the preferable means to recruit prospective employees. As a result, there have been many arguments for or against it as a 0selection procedure. Some people regard it as a good way to 0select employees in a short time while others think it not proper to decide on a person just by the simple means of interview. Both of them have some truth. But in my opinion, it is an efficient way to recruit a prospective employee.
   First of all, interview serves as an efficient way to examine if a person has the qualities that are needed for modern competition or for a certain company. In interview, one needs to present the best part of oneself to the interviewers. If the interviewee is well prepared and has a knowledgeable mind, he or she should show it plainly to the interviewers. The key point for the interviewee on this occasion is to be quick-minded and resourceful. Certainly one will come across some tough questions from the interviewers. What the latter expects is a witty even humorous answer. What is more, in an interview, facing a group of interviewers, who will make a decision on the interviewee fate, the interviewee has to remain calm which is an essential quality for modern competition.
   Secondly, interview embodies fairness--the principle of modern society. During an interview, all interviewees will face the same conditions, such as the same place, the same time. they will face the same interviewers and questions of similar difficulties. The outstanding candidate has to surpass all the other interviewees in answering ail sorts of questions and it mainly depends on his or her own ability. And the judgment is not made by one interviewer but usually by a group of interviewers, which is more objective and democratic.
   Thirdly, interview offers a broader scope of 0selection for both the interviewers and interviewees. A company that needs to remit employees can hold a big interview to 0select their most ideal employees they expect from many applicants. The interviewees on the other hand, can attend several interviews to find the most appropriate companies in which they wish to work and develop. Thus interview is really an important bridge in the process of job hunting.
   To sum up, interview has many advantages to cater for modern society. Thanks to the interview, both companies and interviewees can make their best choices.




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