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直接引语和间接引语

直接引语

直接引用别人的原话叫做直接引语,直接引语通常置于引号内(“引用原话”)。
—“What is it all about?”
—“究竟是什么事呢?”
—“Nothing serious, just a storm in a teacup.”
—“没有什么,大惊小怪而已。”  

间接引语

用自己的话转述别人的意思,或引用自己说过的话, 都叫做间接引语。间接引语多数用宾语从句来表达。
Mary said that she received a sugar report this morning.
玛莉说她今天早上收到了一封情书。
He said that his hands were quite full at that moment.
他说那时他忙得不可开交。

直接引语与间接引语的转换

在将直接引语转换为间接引语时,不仅句式上要有变化,而且要在时态、人称、时间、地点等方面作相应的变化。
1、引语转换时的句式变化
不同的直接引语句式,如:陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句,转换成间接引语时要遵循一定的句式转换规则,还要注意根据句意,使用适当的引述动词。
(1)陈述句的间接引语
将陈述句转换为间接引语,通常用that引导的宾语从句来表达。连词that 在不引起歧义的情况下可以省略。引述分句的动词常见的有say 和tell等。
He said, “I caught a cold yesterday.”   他说:“我昨天感冒了。”
He said (that) he had caught a cold the day before.    他说他前天感冒了。
Helen said to me, “I’m tired of taking such exams.”    海伦说:“我讨厌参加这种考试。”
Helen told me (that) she was tired of taking such exams.    海伦说她讨厌参加这种考试。

在下列情况下,往往要保留that。
① that 的省略会产生歧义。
Linda said disappointedly that when she arrived at the station, the train had already left.
琳达很失望地说,她到达车站时火车已经开走了。(如不用that,when状语从句既可以理解为修饰said, 又可以理解为修饰had left)
② 当引述动词后面不止跟一个that引导的从句时,第二个that不能省略。
He said (that) he was leaving for Europe the next week and that he would stay there for half a year. 他说他下周要到欧洲去并在那里呆半年。(第二个that不能省略)
(2)疑问句的间接引语
直接引语如果是疑问句,变成间接引语后,叫做间接问句。引述的动词常用ask, inquire, wonder, want to know等。间接问句的词序一般都用正常词序,句末不用问号,用句号。
①一般疑问句的间接引语
直接引语为一般疑问句时,用连词whether或if 引导,某些表示请求的疑问句也可以转换成间接祈使句。
I asked him, “Are you satisfied with the results?”  我问他:“你对这结果满意吗?”
I asked him whether he was satisfied with the results.   我问他对这结果是否满意。
"Did you go to the British Museum yesterday?" asked Kate.  凯特问:“你昨天有没有去大英博物馆?”
Kate asked me if I had gone to the British Museum the day before.   凯特问我昨天有没有去大英博物馆。
The old man said to a passer-by, “Will you tell me the way to get to the Great Wall Hotel?”  那位老人跟一位过路人说:“请问到长城饭店的路怎么走。”
The old man asked a passer-by to tell him the way to the Great Wall Hotel.  那位老人请一位过路人告诉他去长城饭店的路。
②选择疑问句的间接引语
直接引语为选择疑问句时,用连词whether/if…or…引导。
He said, “Are you interested in English or not?”   他说:“你是否对英语感兴趣?”
He asked (me) whether I was interested in English or not.   他问我是否对英语感兴趣。
"Do you like Chinese food or Japanese food?" he asked.   他问:“你喜欢中国食物还是日本食物?”
He asked whether / if I liked Chinese food or Japanese food.   他问我喜欢中国食物还是日本食物。
③特殊疑问句的间接引语
直接引语为特殊疑问句,转换为间接引语时,仍用原来的疑问词引导。
"What do you do in your free time?" he asked me.   他问我:“你业余时间干什么?”
He asked me what I did in my free time.   他问我业余时间做什么。
"Why did she go to America?" Paul asked.   保罗问:“她为什么去美国?”
Paul asked why she had gone to America.   保罗问她为什么去了美国。
(3)祈使句的间接引语
直接引语如果是祈使句,变成间接引语后,叫间接祈使句。
①祈使句表示命令时,要把直接引语的动词say变成command, order, tell等动词,被转述的部分改为动词不定式。否定祈使句改为not to do结构。
"Stay where you are," she said.   她说:“呆在原地。”
She told me to stay where I was.    她告诉我呆在原地。
"Don’t smoke in the room," he said.   他说:“别在房间里抽烟。”
He told me not to smoke in the room.   她叫我别在房间里抽烟。
②祈使句表示请求时,常把直接引语的动词say变成ask, beg, request, urge等动词。
She said to me, "Please wait till I return, will you?"   她说:“请你一直等到我回来,好吗?”
She begged me to wait till she returned.    她请求我一直要等到她回来。
③以Let’s开头的祈使的句,通常将引述动词改为suggest,然后再接that从句。
John said to Bill, "Let’s go hiking tomorrow."    约翰对比尔说,“我们明天去徒步旅行吧。”
John suggested to Bill that they (should) go hiking the next day.   约翰向比尔提议第二天去徒步旅行。
(4)感叹句的间接引语
直接引语是感叹句,变成间接引语后,叫做间接感叹句。间接感叹句多采用宾语从句结构,既可用what或how引导,也可用that引导,还可以根据句子表达的不同感情选用适当的动词和状语来转换。
He said, "What a beautiful view it is!"    他说:“多么漂亮的景色!”
He said that it was a very beautiful view.    他说景色非常漂亮。
He cried out what a beautiful view it was.    他大声说这景色是多么地漂亮。
She often says, "What a great country China is!"   她常说:“中国是一个多么伟大的国家!”
She often says that China is a very great country.    她常说中国是一个非常伟大的国家。
She often remarks with admiration (that) China is a great country.   她常常赞赏地说中国多么伟大.
(5)并列句和复合句的间接引语
当转述的内容为并列句或复合句,或有两种以上的句子时,应根据不同的句式来选择不同的引述动词和连接词。
He said, "I told her to wait, but she went away."   他说:“我告诉她等一下,但她还是走了。
He said (that) he had told her to wait but that she went away.  他说他已经告诉她等一下,但她还是走了。
She said, "It is cold here. Is the window shut?"   她说:“这儿很冷。窗户关了吗?”
She said that it was cold there and asked if the window was shut.   她说那儿很冷,并问窗户是否关了。
Fenwick said to me, "Go and see Robin. He will tell you everything you want to know."  芬威克对我说:“去看看罗宾吧,他会告诉你想要知道的事情。”
Fenwick advised me to go and see Robin, and said that he would tell me everything I wanted to know.  芬威克建议我去看罗宾,因为他会告诉我想要知道的事情。
2.引语转换时的各种相应变化
直接引语转换成间接引语除了有句式的变化外,还要掌握动词时态、人称代词、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和词序的变化。
(1)动词时态的变化
① 如果引述动词为现在时态,间接引语的动词可以保持原来的时态。
He says, "I have been writing a novel."    他说:“我一直在写一本小说。”
He says that he has been writing a novel.   他说他一直在写一本小说。
② 如果引述动词为过去时态,间接引语中的时间就要往后推,即现在时间推至过去时间,过去时间推至过去的过去,将来时间推至过去将来时间。具体变化见下表:

     直接引语时态           间接引语时态
      一般现在时             一般过去时
      现在进行时             过去进行时
      现在完成时             过去完成时
    现在完成进行时          过去完成进行时
      一般过去时             过去完成时
      过去完成时             过去完成时
      一般将来时             过去将来时
      将来进行时            过去将来进行时
The teacher said, "You are doing OK."   老师说:“你们干得很不错。”
The teacher said we were doing OK.      老师说我们干得很不错。(现在进行时变为过去进行时)
I asked her, "Where have you spent your holiday?"     我问她:“你去哪里度假了?”
I asked her where she had spent her holiday.      我问她去哪里度假了。(现在完成时变为过去完成时)
She said, "I went to Shanghai."    她说:“我去过上海。”
She said that she had gone to Shanghai.    她说她去过上海。(过去时变为过去完成时)
He said, "I had finished my work before 10 o’clock."    他说:“我在十点钟前就完成工作了。”
He said that he had finished his work before 10 o’clock..   他说他在十点钟前就完成工作了。(过去完成时不变)
The mayor said: "The people of Beijing will be preparing to light the Olympic torch to welcome athletes and fans from all over the world."    这位市长说:“北京人民将准备点燃奥运火炬来迎接来自全世界的运动员和运动迷。”
The mayor said that the people of Beijing would be preparing to light the Olympic torch to welcome athletes and fans from all over the world.     这位市长说北京人民将准备点燃奥运火炬来迎接来自全世界的运动员和运动迷。(将来进行时变为过去将来进行时)
(2)情态动词的变化 
在间接引语中,有些情态动词没有过去式,转换为间接引语时仍用原来的形式,或用其它表示法。
 
                直接引语                        间接引语
          must (必然)(推测)                   must
            mustn’t(禁止)                    mustn’t
              must(必须)                had to/ would have to
                shall                            should 
               should                            should
                will                              would
               would                              would
                may                               might
               might                              might
                can                               could
               could                              could
                dare                              dared
                need                              need
              ought to                          ought to


He said, “I really must go.”    他说:“我一定得走了。”
He said that he really must go.   他说他一定得走了。
"Must we hand in our exercise this afternoon?" he asked.    他问:“我们得今天下午交作业吗?”
He asked if they had to hand in the exercise that afternoon.     他问他们是否那天下午得交作业。
"You need not take an umbrella with you," he said.    他说:“你不用带雨伞。”
He said that I need not take an umbrella with me.     他说我不用带雨伞。
(3)人称代词的变化
人称代词的变化要以转述者的立场作适当的改变。改变方式通常与汉语基本相同,即第一、三人称转换成第三人称;第二人称转换成第一、三人称。
"I’m fond of surfing the Internet," he said.     他说:“我喜欢网上冲浪。”
He said he was fond of surfing the Internet.      他说他喜欢网上冲浪。
"You should pay more attention to your pronunciation,"  the teacher said.    老师说:“你应该更注意你的发音。”
The teacher said that I should pay more attention to my pronunciation.    老师说我应该更注意我的发音。
(4)指示代词的变化
在间接引语中,指示代词this转换成that,these转换成those。
He said, “Please show me this one.”   他说:“请拿这个给我看一下。”
He asked me to show him that one.     他要我拿那个给他看一下。
He said, "I’d like to see these sunglasses."    他说:“我想看这些太阳镜”
He said that he wanted to see those sunglasses.    他说他想看那些太阳镜。
(5)时间状语和地点状语的变化
根据转述的时间和地点不同,时间状语和地点状语存在着较多的变化。
 "We’ll leave here tomorrow," he said.     他说:“我们明天离开这里。”
He said that they would leave there the next day.    他说他们将在第二天离开那里。
"I met him the day before yesterday," she said.     她说:“我前天遇见过他。”
She said that she had met him two days before.      她说她前两天遇见过他。
(6) 间接引语的词序变化
直接引语为疑问句时,间接引语要把倒装词序变为正常词序。
He asked, "How did these differences come about?"    他问:“这些不同之处是如何产生的?”
He asked how those differences had come about.     他问那些不同之处是如何产生的。
"What is adventure travel?" he asked.     他问:“冒险旅游是什么?”
He asked what adventure travel was.      他问什么是冒险旅游。

引语转换应注意的事项

直接引语转换成间接引语要遵循一些最基本的规则,特别是时态的前后呼应及人称代词、时间状语、地点状语的变化。掌握好一些“变化”和“不变化”的规则,有助于准确地进行交际。
1、时态不用变化
如果引述动词为过去式时,间接引语中动词的形式则在下列情况下不用变化:
①直接引语如果是表达客观真理、格言时。
He said, “Well done is better than well said.”   他说:“说得好不如做得好。”
He said that well done is better than well said.   他说说得好不如做得好。
②直接引语中谓语动词如是虚拟语气,变成间接引语后仍用原来形式。
“I advise that you stop smoking,” the doctor said.     医生说:“我劝你戒烟。”
The doctor advised that he stop smoking.    医生劝他戒烟。
③直接引语中的谓语动词与具体时间状语连用时,间接引语时态可不变。
He told me, “Jurassic Park was made by Spielberg in 1993.”
他告诉我:“《侏罗纪公园》是斯皮尔伯格于1993年拍摄的。”
He told me that Jurassic Park was made by Spielberg in 1993.
他告诉我《侏罗纪公园》是斯皮尔伯格于1993年拍摄的。
④直接引语中的时间状语为过去时形式,引语中状语从句的谓语动词时态通常不变。
Mr. Smith said, “When we lived in that city, we often met each other.”  史密斯先生说:“当我们住在那个城市时,我们经常见面。”
Mr. Smith said that when they lived in that city they had often met each other.   史密斯先生说当他们住在那个城市时,他们经常见面。
⑤当引语表达的动作或状态现在仍然存在时,从句的谓语动词可不用变化。
Our teacher said, “Eco-travel is a form of travel that combines normal tourism with learning.”
我们老师说:“生态旅游是一种结合一般旅游和学习的旅游。”
Our teacher said that eco-travel is a form of travel that combines normal tourism with learning.     
我们老师说生态旅游是一种结合一般旅游和学习的旅游。
⑥当引述动词用现在时形式时,引语中的时态不须改动。
He says, “I have accepted her invitation.”   他说:“我已经接受她的邀请了。”
He says that he has accepted her invitation.   他说他已经接受她的邀请了。
2、时间状语、地点状语不用变化
①如果说话时间和引述时间相同(如同一天,同一月等),时间状语可不变。
“I finished writing my paper yesterday,” he said today.    他今天说:“我昨天写完论文了。”
He told me today that he finished writing the paper yesterday.    他今天说他昨天写完论文了。
②转述的地点不变时,地点状语here不必改为there。
He said, “I enjoy my stay here.”    他说:“我在这里逗留期间玩得很开心。”
He said that he enjoyed his stay here.    他说他在这里逗留期间玩得很开心。
3、引述动词的变化
为了让表达更丰富多彩一些,引述动词除了常见的tell,ask,say外,根据不同句式还可以选用不同的动词:
The boy said to his mother, “I’ll never smoke again.” 
那男孩子对他母亲说:“今后我决不再吸烟了。”
  The boy promised his mother never to smoke again.  
那男孩向他母亲保证不再吸烟。
“Call the police, Sean,” he said.  
他说:“肖恩,叫警察。”
  He ordered Sean to call the police.   
他命令肖恩叫警察。(表命令的祈使句)
“Don’t forget to buy me some ketchup on your way home,” said Mother.
妈妈说:“别忘了在回家的路上帮我买些番茄汁。“
  Mother reminded me not to forget to buy her some ketchup on my way home.
妈妈提醒我别忘了在回家路上帮她买些番茄汁。(表提醒的祈使句)
“Shall I post these letters for you?” he asked.    
他问:“要我帮忙把这些信寄出去吗?”
  He offered to post those letters for me.      
他提出要帮我寄出那些信。(表提供帮助的祈使句)
“Does she really mean it?” he asked.       
他问:“她真的是这个意思吗?”
 He wondered / wanted to know whether/ if she really meant it.
他想知道她是否真的是这意思。(疑问句)
4、间接引语的句式变化
为了使表达更生动,更准确,我们在进行直接引语和间接引语转换时,可注意使用不同的句式,这对提高我们表达能力的档次很有帮助。
“Merry Christmas!” he said.  
他说:“圣诞快乐!”
  He wished me a merry Christmas. 
他祝我圣诞快乐。
“Help!” he cried.  
他喊道:“救命啊!“
He called for help.    他大声呼救。
Mr. Wu said to them, “ Youd better make   preparations for the exam.”   吴老师对他们说:“你们最好为考试做准备。”
Mr. Wu advised them to make preparations for the exam.    吴老师劝他们为考试做好准备。
He said, “I did break the window.”   他说:“我的确打烂了那个玻璃窗。”
He admitted having broken the window.  他承认打烂了那个玻璃窗。
“Don’t walk on the ice. It isn’t safe,” Mother said to us.  妈妈对我们说:“不要在冰上行走,不安全!”
Mother warned us not to walk on the ice since it wasn’t safe.  妈妈告诫我们不要在冰上行走因为不安全。
“Have a cigarette,” he said. “No, thanks,” I replied.  “抽只烟吧?”他说。“不,谢谢!”我回答道。
He offered me a cigarette which I refused.    他给我一只烟,我谢绝了。

练习

一、选择填空
1. He asked _________ for the violin.
  A. did I pay how much          B. I paid how much
  C. how much did I pay          D. how much I paid
2. Can you make sure _______ the gold ring?
  A. where Alice has put          B. where had Alice put
  C. where Alice had put          D. where has Alice put
3. These photos will show you __________.
A. what does our village look like  B. what our village looks like
C. how our village look like        D. how our village looks like
4. You can’t imagine _______ when they received these nice Christmas presents.
  A. how they were excited        B. how excited they were
  C. how excited were they         D. they were how excited
5. ______ she said suggested that she hadn’t decided _________ to go or not.
  A. What, if                    B. That, whether
  C. What, whether               D. What, whichever
6. I’ll ask my parents _________.
  A. whether they will agree to go   B. if they let me go
  C. if they will let me go          D. whether they allow me to
7. ---Do you mind if Jim will come to help?
  ---I really don’t know ________ a person like him can help me with.
  A. what                       B. that
  C. how                       D. if
8. He asked me if _____________.
  A. the train will late             B. the train always arrived late
  C. the train arrives on time       D. the train stops here
9. It is said in the book that Thomas Edison (1847-1931) _______ the world leading inventor for sixty years.
  A. would be                   B. has been
  C. had been                   D. was
10. –Sorry to have interrupted you. Please go on.
   ---Where was I?
   ---You _______ you didn’t like your father’s job.
   A. had said                   B. said
   C. were saying                D. had been saying
二、把下列直接引语变成间接引语
1. “You have done a good job,” said the teacher.
2. He said, “I’ll help you with it later.”
3. “Be careful with the dog,” I said.
4. “Are you sure about this?” ha asked.
5. She asked, “What’s the matter with you?”
6. He said, “We met in 2002. We have been friends for two years.”
7. He asked, “Alice, where did you buy it?”
8. “How wonderful the journey is!” he said.
9. “Tom, don’t forget to take your raincoat,” he said.
10. “Why do you come so late?” Mary asked.
三、翻译下列句子
1.他叫我别打扰他。
2. 我坚决主张推迟这次运动会。
3. 我怀疑他们的旅行是否舒适。
4. 老师说过患难之交才是真朋友。
5. 她认为他们一定已经离开了。
6. 苏珊问我对这出戏的看法。
7. 他问我能否帮他搬那个行李箱。
8. 他告诉我们他第二天就要到北京去。
参考答案
一、1. D   2. A   3. B   4. B   5. C   6. C   7. A   8. A   9. D   10. C 
二、
1.The teacher said that I had done a good job.
2. He said that he would help me with it later.
3. I warned him to be careful with the dog.
4. He asked me if I was sure about that.
5. She asked what was the matter with me.
6. He said that they met in 2002 and that they had been friends for two years.
7. He asked where Alice bought it.
8. He said that the journey was wonderful.
    He exclaimed how wonderful the journey was.
9. He reminded Tom to take his raincoat.
10. Marry wanted to know why he came so late.
三、
1. He asked me not to disturb him.
2. I insisted that the sports meeting (should) be put off.
    I insisted on putting off the sports meeting.
3. I doubt whether / if their journey is a comfortable one.
4. The teacher said a friend in need is a friend indeed.
5. She thought that they must have left.
6. Susan asked how I liked the play.
7. He asked me to help him with his suitcase.
     He asked me if I could help him with his suitcase.
8. He told us that he was leaving for Beijing the next / following day.

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